FOR THE YEAR 1918
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY
NINETEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN
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FOR THE YEAR 1918
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY
NINETEEN Ht'VPRF.P ASP EIOHTUR
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OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Newton.
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton.
CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline.
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston.
WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.*
THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston.
GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich.
ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline.
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston.
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston.
JOHN K. M. L. PARQUHAR, of Boston.
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston.
CHARLES W. MOSELEY, of Newburyport.
ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston.
THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant.
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston.
STEPHEN M. WELD, of Wareham.
Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture.
SAMUEL J. GODDARD, of Framingham.
JOHN S. AMES, Boston ROBERT CAMERON, Cambridge.
THOMAS ROLAND, Nahant. EDWIN S. WEBSTER, Boston.
ERNEST H. WILSON, Boston.
* Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston.
COMMITTEES FOE 1918
WALTER HUNNEWELL, Chairman
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK STEPHEN M. WELD
THOMAS ALLEN CHARLES W. MOSELEY
GEORGE E. BARNARD THOMAS ROLAND
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL
Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions
JAMES WHEELER. Chairman
ROBERT CAMERON DUNCAN FINLAYSOX
WILLIAM N. CRAIG T. D. HATFIELD
Committee on Plants and Flowers
WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman
ARTHUR H. FEWKES DONALD McKENZlE
S. J. GODDARD WILLIAM SIM
Committee on Fruits
EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman
WILLIAM N. CRAIG ISAAC H. LOCKE
Committee on Vegetables
JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman
EDWARD PARKER WILLIAM C. RUST
Committee on Gardens
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman
JOHN S. AMES DAVID R. CRAIG
WILLIAM NICHOLSON CHARLES SANDER
CHARLES H. TENNEY
Committee on Library
CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman
ERNEST B. DANE NATHANIEL T. KIDDER
Committee on Lectures and Publications
FRED A. WILSON. Chairman
THOMAS ALLEN JOHN ELM.] LQUHAR
Committee on Children's Gardens
HENRY s. \i> LMS, Chmirman
DR. HARRIS KENNEDY MRS. w. RODMAN PEABODY
MISS MARGARET A. RAND 1 \MES WHEELER
Massachusetts Horticultural Society.
The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts
under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications.
Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi-
cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William
P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts
Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts.
Fred A. Wilson, Chairman ] Committee on
Thomas Allen > Lectures and
John K. M. L. Farquhar J Publications.
The Inaugural Meeting 7
Horticultural Papers 15
Alpine Plants for the Rock Garden. By Mrs. Louis
The Arnold Arboretum. By Edward I. Farrington . 33
New Horticultural Crops for Food Supply. By Prof.
U. P. Hedrick ... ... 51
The Peony. By Bertrand H. Parr .... 65
The Diseases of Roses. By Prof. Louis M. Massey . 81
THE INAUGURAL MEETING, JANUARY 12, 1918.
1918, PART I.
The Inaugural Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural
Society for the year 1918 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston,
on Saturday, January 12, at twelve o'clock, with President Salton-
stall in the Chair.
The call for the meeting was read by the Secretary and the
record of the previous meeting was read and approved. The
President then proceeded to deliver his Inaugural Address.
Inaugural Address of President Saltonstall.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society:
It has been a great pleasure to me to serve as your President
for the past two years. It was certainly my intention to retire
with the close of last year, but it was represented to me that
several of my predecessors had served three years; that it
was a year filled with difficulties arising from the war and that
under the circumstances I owed it to the Society to continue in
office one more year. For these reasons I shall gladly undertake
to serve to my best ability although I believe that rotation in the
office of the President of this Society every two yean ordinarily
The past year has been one of great interest to me and I feel
that the result of the work of your Trustees and the various Com-
mittees undertaken during the year has not only kept up with the
B MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
standard of the past eighty-eight years, but in several respects
has shown marked progress.
There have been ten indoor shows during the year. These all
will be spoken of in the reports of your Committees.
I want to speak briefly of the Spring Show, the June Outdoor
Show, the Special Fruit Show, and of the Children's Garden Show.
We started in early last year to make the March Show especially
attractive and we employed for the first time Mr. Chester I.
Campbell, the well-known publicity agent, to assist in giving
publicity to the Show. The exhibit itself was certainly most
attractive. We shall carry in our minds for years the impression
made by the lovely exhibits of Acacias and Orchids and flowering
bulbs and grouped plants. The exhibits were effectively arranged
both as to color and varieties and many who have attended our
shows for years were enthusiastic in their praise of this Show. It
was a Show that stimulated a real interest in a very large number of
people. The paid entrances amounted to $7,383.25, a considerably
larger amount than was ever received at any one show given by
the Society. Our expenses were large but we made a considerable
sum, and the thing not to be overlooked is the fact that we reached
a very large number of people. I think it may well be referred
to as the biggest and the best show we ever had indoors.
The June Show was featured along quite different lines; our
Society in its early history had given shows on the Public Garden
and Boston Common, the last in 1S73. We wished to exhibit some
of our beautiful indoor and outdoor plants and shrubs under more
favorable conditions than is possible in the Hall and for this reason
secured the spacious grounds of the Arioch Wentworth Institute.
It is not necessary to mention the great amount of work which
was done in adapting these grounds to the rock garden and pond
and the outside planting for it is fresh in the minds of all of us.
The seven large tents with their various special exhibits was the
most ambitious venture ever undertaken by our Society in the
way of an outdoor show.
The exhibits were certainly most excellent. The Orchid Show
was worth traveling miles to see, and the same was true of the
Azaleas, the Wisterias, and the Roses. For some reason which
I cannot explain we had most uncommonly bad luck on weather.
INAUGURAL MEETING V
It was very cold and rainy prior to the Show so that the Rhododen-
drons were far from their bloom, and to make matters worse it
continued to rain almost every day of the Show. It was indeed
most depressing. If I remember rightly, the one person who could
look pleasant during the last days of the Show was our good friend
James Wheeler who did his very best to help us out of our troubles.
The Show was not supported by the public and under the circum-
stances the result was not surprising although terribly disappoint-
ing. Great thanks are due to Mr. Walter Hunnewell and Prof.
Charles S. Sargent for their exhibits of Rhododendrons, Azaleas,
and Wisterias, to Messrs. John Waterer's Sons Co. of England, for
a fine exhibit of Rhododendrons, to Mr. Thomas Roland for the
Roses, to Mr. John K. M. L. Farquhar for his collection of new
varieties of evergreens, mostly the result of Mr. Wilson's collections
in China and Japan in recent years, to Mr. Cooley, Mr. Webster,
Julius Roehrs Co., F. J. Dolansky, Mrs. Weld, and several others
for the Orchids, to Mr. Sim for his Pansy exhibit, and to numer-
ous other exhibitors all of whom exhibited, without expectation
of money prizes.
As one result of this effort, I was obliged to call upon 19 members
of our Society who had underwritten various amounts in case of
a loss and as a result of their generosity our Society sustained
a trifling loss although the amount to be paid up was a good large
sum, so large that I think it just as well not to mention it. The
chances of bad weather necessarily make a show of this kind more
of a venture. I am glad that we gave the Show and certainly
hope that it may have done some lasting good to our Society.
The Show in itself was certainly most creditable, and the Society
is greatly indebteded to Mr. Thomas Allen for his efficient services
in connection with the arrangement of the same.
At the Fall Fruit Show given in conjunction with the American
Pomological Society and the New England Fruit Show in Novem-
ber there was a fine exhibit of apples and a fair exhibit of pears,
grapes, and some other fruits. An instructive series of lectures
was given during the progress of the Show. Great interest i^ ap-
parent in the cultivation of the apple but there seems to be a
comparatively little interest in the growing and development of
die pear. Years ago in tins Society there appears to have been
more interest in the pear than in the apple.
10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
I happened to be glancing over* the report of the annual meeting
in 1866 and mention is there made of an award to Francis Dana
for the introduction of the Dana's Hovey, to my mind one of the
very nicest pears grown. How long is it, I wonder, since anyone of
our members has been awarded a prize for the introduction of
so good a pear as that !
The Exhibition of the Products of Children's Gardens was
wonderfully successful this year. It showed beyond doubt that
the children are interested in the growing of commercial crops,
perhaps especially stimulated this year by the war conditions.
We believe our annual show for children is specially desirable and
should be continued from year to year with such variation in
program as to broaden the field of activity.
Now for the coming year. It is certainly for the best interests of
our Society to continue our efforts to increase the membership.
As a result of our efforts last year we secured 83 new members.
We have had a considerable number of deaths but our membership
roll has increased from 925 to 979 and a large proportion of the
new members were life members.
From figures given me by our Secretary, it appears that our
membership in 1875 was 1035 and this I believe was the largest
membership of our Society. Now we have only to gain 56 more
members to pass that goal and I should like to accomplish that
result this year. It ought to be easy. Each member ought to be
able to propose at least one member. . W 7 hy, think of it, the list
of Fellows in the Royal Society of London in 1914 was 14,400!
The Catalogue of the Library, I am told, will contain not only
a correct list of our books but a subject index for flowers, vege-
tables, and fruits, giving a classified list of all that pertains to each
special subject. It is expected that this will be completed during
The Lectures will be continued and the program already published
shows an interesting group of various subjects which will be dis-
cussed. These lectures are well attended and certainly must be
doing a considerable good in stimulating interest in horticulture.
The fact that our country is now engaged in a serious war which
is affecting all industries to a greater or lesser extent has led your
Trustees and Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions to carefully
INAUGURAL MEETING 11
reconsider the schedule program for the shows as first proposed
for this year.
We planned some months ago to appropriate about 88500 for
prizes for flowers, fruits, and vegetable exhibits and to especially
feature a vegetable show in the fall by the giving of much larger
money prizes than has been customary lately, but we have been
forced to reconsider the advisability of this for various reasons.
In the first place, our income is going to be considerably less,
less rentals and less bounty from the State and our necessary
expenses are going to be higher, e. g. coal 81000.00 more this year
than last, so that it is manifestly necessary and advisible to con-
serve our resources to the fullest extent. Again, the thought has
occurred to us that our Society could and should actively assist
in some recognized war charity or work for the benefit of our
soldiers and as the best manner of doing this we are planning
to make all our important shows Pay Shows, to give no money
prizes except in a few special cases where money has been given to
be awarded in special ways, and to give all the net receipts to the
Red Cross or other as well recognized charity.
We are going to call upon our amateur and professional growers
and our wholesale and retail flower dealers to actively participate
in undertaking to make these shows a wonderful success and in
that way to contribute a goodly sum to the good cause of charity.
The more you think of this, the more I trust you will be favorably
impressed with our purposes, and the more you will be determined,
I hope, to make the shows a great success. We may well say to
ourselves in what other ways can we assist to meet the seri< Hi-
consequences of war? Already our Halls have been used for the
Red Cross for three months rent free for surgical dressings work.
Should we not be considering whether we cannot do more in
encouraging the proper planting and growing of commcrieal crops!
It is all well enough to stimulate the growing of vegetables,
but is not a lot of money wasted doing it as it was done last Spril
If done again this spring, should not proper instruction be given
in the matter of fertilizers and the proper method of preparing
the ground? If with our resources we could start an advanced
course of instruction to teachers in this line of work, it might do
much good and save a lot of useless expense.
12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Could we not also consider the advisability of growing intelli-
gently more of our own vegetable seeds and take care ourselves of
this industry which in past years has become an important trade to
Germany? In this connection it is interesting to read an old
advertisement that appeared in the Worcester Gazette, April 3,
To be sold, by edmund heard, in Lancaster, the
following assortment of garden seeds, warrented
of the last Year's produce, viz.
early peas early dwarf kidney, and six week beans,
early stone turnip, early Yorkshire, green Savoy, and
winter cabbage, early Mogul, and head lettuce, pepper-
grass, PARSLEY, RADDISH, CELERY, BEET, ONION, CARROT, PARSNIP,
summer and winter squash.
CUCUMBER, MUSK MELON, and PEPPER SEED,
also, White beans, brought from the Northward, of a
superior Quality for planting in Cornfields.
LANCASTER, MARCH 14, 1783."
We all know how unpleasant it is to find that we have failed to
secure a good crop on account of poor seed and possibly this could
be rectified if our seeds were grown here at home. Certainly we
would be more independent in a time of war as now.
Just one more thought which has occurred to me since the war.
Some people look upon the growing of flowers as a pure luxury
which ought to be given up during war times. Now I do not
agree with this thought and I want to tell you why.
First, we must consider the fact that a very considerable number
of men have given up their life work to the study and work of
floriculture, a science in itself; of these men many are of mature
years and are utterly unfitted for other fields of work, and in many
cases dependent on their work for their support. Again, it is
INAUGURAL MEETING 13
important to keep this industry going for those who will wish to
return to it after the war.
Second, a vast amount of plant life in greenhouses would be
lost if greenhouses should be given up. These plants in many
cases have taken years to grow and perhaps could never be
Third, flowers surely are not so much of a luxury as costly
clothing or jewelry worn chiefly to attract the eye, or the many
attractive but not necessary fittings of our homes. If all luxuries
are to go, flowers must go with them, but when you consider the
great amount of happiness and real pleasure that can be given
to the sick and the wounded and those confined to their bed, in
some cases far away from home, I say that flowers should be the
last of all luxuries to be forced out by dire stress of war.
In conclusion, let me say that I have received the helpful coopera-
tion of all officers and committee members for which I am deeply
grateful. I have enjoyed becoming better acquainted with them
and shall try to know them even better as we go through this
year together and shall hope to retain their confidence and their
At the close of the address the annual reports of the officers
and chairmen of the various committees of the Society were called
for and presented in the following order:
Report of the Treasurer, Walter Hunnewell.
Report of the Board of Trustees, by the Secretary.
Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions, James
Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers, William Ander-
Report of the Committee on Fruits, Edward B. Wilder, Chairman.
Report of the Committee on Vegetables, John L. Smith, (hair-
Report of the Committee on Gardens, Richard M. Saltonstall,
Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens. Henry S.
14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Report of the Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture, Edward
Report of the Secretary and Librarian.
The various reports were separately accepted with thanks and
referred to the Committee on Publications for record in the Trans-
actions of the Society.
The meeting was then dissolved.
William P. Rich,
•;MASS. HORT. SOC, 1918
Mrs. L. S. Chanler's Rock Garden
ALPINE PLANTS FOR THE ROCK GARDEN.
By Mrs. L. S. Chanler, Tuxedo Park, N. Y.
Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, June 2, 1917.
Alpine plants are a source of endless interest and pleasure to
all who know them. The object of w r hat I have to say today is
to try and increase your interest in them, be it ever so little. Un-
doubtedly, many of you who are devoted gardeners have never
felt any enthusiasm for al pines and have perhaps even suspected
them of being a foolish fad. That is a normal state for those who
do not know these plants. I felt that way myself not many years
ago and used to ask my English friends not to show me their rock
gardens, as I did not understand them.
It is certain that anyone who commences to grow alpines never
gives them up. Their charms and fascinations are endless, and
though their flowers are usually to be seen only in the spring their
growth of foliage rosettes covered with fat buds in many varieties,
or laced over w r ith exquisite white markings, as in the encrusted
saxifrages, is most lovely at all seasons, and most alpines are ever-
About the middle of September, when the great heat is over,
these plants like many evergreens put out new shoots and take
on an altogether spruce and lively air. Also, many of them bloom
again, not with the rich profusion of early summer, but the few
late flow T ers give all the more pleasure because of being rare. A
wonderful lace-like plant which blooms from May to December is
Asperula cynanch'nia. You see it here draping these rocks in late
October. Here is a closer view of it, and later you will see it
blooming in early summer. It has all the soft, foamy effect of
gypsophila but not gypsophila's bad habit of blooming only once.
Here is Sedinn Sieboldii, also in October. It is a lovely gray and
pink plant, and the flowers last ;» long time.
Gardeners have sometimes objected thai our summers are too
IS MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
hot to grow alpine plants successfully, and this is truly our greatest
difficulty. If it is possible to place a rock construction facing
north, then our chance- re greatly increased. But.
though our summer sunshine is too ardent, our winter snows are
of the very greatest benefit to these little plants. Dining the
winter before last, when my garden in Tuxedo was under a nice
blanket of snow for nearly four months, not a plant was lost in the
rock garden. Of course, in this country we also sometimes have
open winters, but never the warm green Januarys they often get in
England, which excite the plants into premature growth and
result in many flowers being destroyed. In Tuxedo we have
only one plant which has such an early habit that it always starts
blooming before Christmas. That plant is Erica hubrida, a variety
not unlike Erica carnea, but daintier, quicker-growing, and with
much paler flowers. This picture was taken in October. The
buds, of course, increased in size during the warm, sunny days of
For all the gray and woolly alpine plants our climate is far
better than the English, and we constantly read in the books by
Farrer and Robinson about gray-leaved plants damping off and
needing the protection of a piece of glass to keep off what they call
their rotting rains. A case in point is Androsace sarmentosa. A
friend brought me a plant of it from Switzerland, and this is what
I read about it in Robinson's "Alpine Plants": "This is a Hima-
in species, growing at an elevation of over 11,000 feet. The
flowers, borne in trusses of ten to twenty, at first sight resem-
ble those of a rosy white-eyed verbena. Like many other woolly-
leaved alpines. this is difficult to keep alive through our damp
winters. A piece of glass in a slanting position about six inches
above the plant preserves it. Care should also be taken to put
sandstone, broken fine, immediately under the rosettes of leaves
and over the surface of the soil, to keep every part of the plant,
except the roots, from contact with the soil. A dry calcareous
loam is best. Where limestone can be had to mix with the soil, a
much better display of flower and foliage can be obtained. It also
helps to keep the plant dry in wint-r
S B we gave it a dry, well-drained, sunny place, and now this
androsace has spread like magic. Xo pieces of glass could be put
ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 19
over it, and it needs none. Now it has been divided, and we have
dozens, and it has most amusing ways. In the autumn, the outer
leaves of each rosette disappear, and the center, which is where
the verbena-like flowers are to come, puts on a lovely, gray velvet
surface. In June, after flowering, this plant puts out runners like a
strawberry. In this picture, the first bit is in bloom in a warm
corner between the rocks. Here are the flowers more in detail.
They are a pretty shade of pink.
We now have fourteen varieties of androsace thriving, and they
vary from vitallina, which is only one inch high and golden and
easy, to foliosa, which is nearly a foot high. These plants have
all proved hardy and even easy with us, except Androsace ladea
and Androsace villosa. These two kinds are very tiny and grow
slowly. A. villosa came through last winter without turning a
hair and bloomed beautifully. Androsace carnea is a beautiful
dark green moss, one inch high, on which appear in April the
loveliest rosy flowers. This does better with us than in Mr.
Correvon's great alpine collection in Switzerland. It likes leaf-
mould and hates lime, and it has even sowed itself. All the andro-
saces have interesting and beautiful foliage. In some, it is like
the tiniest imaginable juniper; in others, there are gray rosettes
In addition to the many charms and beauties of alpine plants,
I feel that they will be of special interest to Americans, because
they can be grown without employing a gardener. Wages are
already so very high here that only the rich can hope to afford to
pay them. Yet there are thousands of flower enthusiasts who
would like to garden, if they thought it could be done without much
labor or expense. Once reasonably made, a rock garden can be
kept up by a woman, even if she is not very strong. Weeding is
the principal work, and has to be done carefully and patiently. Hut
as the rock plants are usually grown on a slope or bank, the gar-
dener is not forced to stoop and tire her back. We have rattan
-rats of different heights, which are kept out of sight, and arc
most comfortable for weeding. The only other work in a rock
garden consists in watering, planting new plants, and saving and
sowing seed. This question of sowing Beed we will consider a
20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
There are two principal modes of constructing a rock garden.
A miniature valley, that is the soil dug out four or five feet and
banked up on each side, or, if there is a natural slope, stones laid
firmly in it to form irregular steps or shelves, where the plants
may be put. Both plans are equally good. In the Botanical
Garden at Kew, London, they have the sunken path with high
banks on each side, and at the Horticultural Society's Gardens at
Wisley, one hour's drive south of London, a big hillside has been
used to make shelves and steps, and so show off a great collection
of alpines. Here it has been easy to have a waterfall. At Kew
they have just a pool next the path here and there. No cement has
been used in these constructions, and it has not been found necessary.
Cement may be used in retaining walls, as will be shown when
that subject is reached, but for a rock garden the weight of earth
is usually not too great to be held up by well-placed stones without
cement; of course, large stones two or even three feet long are
used for the foundations.
For a very small rock garden the bank seems easier and more
suitable, but in my own rock garden I have made the little valley
which has the advantage of banks facing north and south. Unfor-
tunately, the bed rock was so near the surface soil that we could
excavate only about one foot.
It is extremely important to build with solid foundation and
a definite plan. The idea that any natural-looking mound of stones
heaped together will do for growing alpines is a hopeless mis-
take, because the plants must have definite and solid protection
for their roots. Mr. Farrer says: "Stone in nature is never dis-
connected; each is always, as it were, a syllable in a sentence.
Remember that, urgently: boulder leads to boulder in an ordered
sequence." There must be no cracks, air-spaces, or slipping down
of the soil. These are absolutely fatal, and it is a thousand times
easier to guard against them in the original construction than
after a number of plants have started to cover the stones.
When one has decided on a rock garden and has got the stones
and earth together at the chosen spot, there is an almost overwhelm-
ing temptation to build too quickly, and to put in what plants one
has, for the sake of seeing the effect. This is a most dangerous
way to proceed. We have suffered from it for years, and have lost
ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 21
valuable plants in painful efforts at reconstruction. It is all a
question of considering the roots of the plants. If they are planted
on a slope with nothing much to hold the soil, it is bound to wash
away in our heavy rains, and then roots will be uncovered, and
plants will die. Alpines, though often less then an inch high
need deep earth for their roots. Robinson says these tiny plants
often have roots a yard long. Nothing is more certainly fatal
than to plant them in a pocket with no depth. They may thrive for
a time, but after the first drought, they die.
The pockets or shelves where the plants are to go should not
slope down toward the path. They should slope back a little toward
the main construction to carry the rain into it. This is hard to
achieve, because after the stones are fixed and the soil is in, one
adds sand or fertilizer or lime, and, the whole shelf being small,
the least addition to the soil will result in the wrong slope. Usually,
it occurs in the very beginning, when the soil is being shoveled
in. So the builder must not hesitate to take out earth until the
levels are perfect. Here are pictures to show the difference:
although the quaker ladies looked lovely on the wrong slope, that
was only for one year, before the earth had had time to wash away.
Also they are the most accommodating of ladies, besides being
very lovely. In the second picture, flat shelves can be seen,
where the plants can be perfectly happy. This picture shows a
well-placed rock in the foreground. It is almost bare, because
it has only just been put in, but the shelf or tiny terrace which
it holds up, shows well what is meant by a proper level. On
the left of the picture, the wrong kind of slope is plainly seen.
This has been taken out, and flat pockets put in its place.
In arranging the rocks, care should be taken that none are allowed
to overhang. This would prevent the necessary rain reaching the
plants underneath the rock. Every part of the rock garden should
be so arranged that all the rain will be absorbed by it.
Beside the absolute necessity of making the roots of the plants
secure against all disturbances, and the length of the roots must be
seen to be believed, the general effect is tar better and happier if
the levels are made right. It is all the difference between a repose-
ful picture and a restless one, slipping down. <>r everlastingly fixed.
In this picture, the flat shell I sen on the left, and on the right
22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
there is a sloping bank, now happily made flat. It must constantly
be remembered that the plants and not the stones are the main
point in rock gardens. The stones are merely the frame and must
be kept from intruding into the picture.
What Mr. Farrer means by " Boulder leads to boulder in an or-
dered sequence, and treating your rocks as syllables in a sentence to
make a coherent whole" is well illustrated in this picture. Several
of the stones are disconnected, with the result that water has
evidently washed soil from precious roots. Therefore the place
is half bare. It will also be noticed that the few plants doing well
are the ones with the stones protecting their roots from dis-
For the amateur, simply wishing to experiment with the more
easily grown rock-plants, so as to find out if he really has a taste
for this form of gardening, the sloping bank in which half a dozen
stones are partly buried, will do perfectly well as a beginning. It
is far easier and pleasanter to begin modestly and gradually
expand, than to lay out an ambitious rock work and then find that
one has neither the skill nor the inclination to grow the right plants
The bank shown here was only partly devoted to growing al-
pines; next spring, however, the rocks will be extended, and the
annuals will not be there. Of course, there must be no formality
about anything in the rock garden, no grass edges or anything of
that sort. We do not need the stepping stones so useful in damp
England, but a gravel path is useful, and dwarf plants often seed
themselves and thrive in it. There is more moisture in the path
than anywhere else, as the water is sure to trickle down. So, even
though the path plants do occasionally get stepped upon, they are
often very handsome.
The whole surface of the rock garden should eventually be covered
with plants, but one must be cautious, as some undesirable kinds
are too free and are hard to get rid of. It is best, for a time at
least, to submit to the ugliness of bare ground than to let one's
precious pockets be over run with greedy, seedy plants. This
bare ground about rare plants should be covered with small stones
or broken rock to prevent evaporation, and they would also pre-
vent stagnant moisture in winter. The stones are not pretty, and
ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 23
a little soil sprinkled on top of them makes them less conspicuous.
When our object is achieved and we have collected enough of the
best plants, there will be no bare, stony places to offend our eyes.
Here is one approach to the rock garden. Nothing in the least
formal, and low plants are better than high ones. These forget-
me-nots were glorious, because just beyond them, looking black in
the photograph, was a solid mass of that wonderful hardy wall-
flower, Erysimum aRioni. As far as I have been able to discover,
there is only one shade of it, a deep rich yellow. It is biennial
and grows about a foot high. Here are more forget-me-nots.
These are with lilies-of-the-valley, and the whole plantation is
surrounded with periwinkle. In the periwinkle we plant that
typical alpine, the autumn crocus. I have often smiled as I read
about its charms for the rock garden and wondered what these
good authors thought of their autumn crocus in May, when it's
great coarse leaves appear. By growing them in the periwinkle
we are able to hide these leaves as soon as they show signs of drying.
We roll them up and hide them under the periwinkle, and there
they can dry up without being an eyesore. Here are the crocuses
Visitors, seeing a rock garden for the first time full of blooming
alpines, are constantly exclaiming, "These cannot be hardy plants!
They are too delicate, too brilliant to have lived all through our
icy winters." These Saxifraga cordifolia were particularly brilliant
last April, a vivid coral pink, and you can see in this picture that
there were no leaves on the trees when they bloomed.
Here is another alpine beauty, a Primula denticulate caskmeriana.
It sows itself, and, given half shade and water during dry weather,
it is perfectly easy to grow.
The old-fashioned way of having gardens bare in the early spring,
except for narcissus and tulips, lias resulted in their being accepted
so, as a natural law, and when people hear of twenty or thirty
varieties being in bloom in early April they are amazed.
Alpine plants usually bloom in the early spring. In the moun-
tains the summers are very short; often only a few weeks from the
time when the snow melts to the first storms of antnmn, so the
Bowers must appear immediately, it" they are to ripen seed and
continue their species. There are summer-blooming alpines like
24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
the large and lovely family of Campanulas, but, though the plants
are perfectly hardy and easy to grow, the flowers do not survive
our July sunshine very long, so that visitors, seeing a rock garden
after June, may well be disappointed over the lack of color and
brilliance. Linum perenne is a lovely summer-flowering plant,
rather large perhaps, but the blue flowers succeed each other for a
very long time, and the foliage is soft and graceful. These alpine
pinks bloom all through June and are the greatest joy because of
their fragrance. Their foliage is always an addition, being soft
mats of that gray green shade which is so becoming to all flowers.
Here are more June flowers, Campanula longistyla, a biennial
like the Canterbury bell, but a real beauty and easily raised from
seed. The little white flower above is Silene rupestris, one of the
easiest plants to grow and always an addition wherever it sows
itself. The lower white flower is Armaria montana, not at all
easy with us, but in the shade it consents *to thrive. Above is the
foliage of the Saxifraga cordifolia, which you saw a few minutes ago.
In April, May, and June, there are always masses of flowers in
the rock garden, and the early flowers are after all the ones we
enjoy most, after being deprived of them all winter long, and before
the heat in the mornings and the mosquitoes in the evening drive
Another very important reason why rock gardens should become
known in this country is that a rock garden can be made on the
smallest piece of ground. My own rock garden, which already
boasts of over 350 varieties, is only about 13 yards long and 8 yards
Mr. Reginald Farrer, in his charming book "The Rock Garden,"
says it is really by far the cheapest and most graceful form of
gardening. "It has become, and is hourly still more universally
becoming, the pet passion of the man who has small means and
only a small plot of ground to play with." And this in England,
where labor was so cheap.
A rock garden does not look well in a landscape or near the formal
lines of a building or a road, and it should be put in a secluded
ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 25
corner, where it can be nursed and enjoyed intimately. The
late owner of Holland House, London, was so fond of alpines that
he planted small groups among stones on either side of the garden
door of that magnificent Elizabethan Palace, where they looked
entirely out of place.
The suburban home should have a bit of ground at the back, if
its owner wants a rock garden. Stones are bound to look irregular
and inharmonious in formal surroundings, as can be seen when
rocks are left in a lawn. Harmony with surroundings is the funda-
mental law of successful gardening.
In a rock garden, one can get closer to nature as she shows herself
on the mountains, than in any other way, if one has not the land
for woods and streams and pastures. Alpine plants are practically
all perennial, permanent, and stationary, not popped in out of a
greenhouse only to die in the first frosts. These temporary plants
have no individuality, no opportunity to adapt themselves to their
surroundings, and though they may be beautiful, they are not
interesting. Alpines take time to develop, and show their true
character, but once they do this, the happy owner, who has given
them their chance, can feel that he has real nature to enjoy, some-
thing superior to the learned combinations of the landscape gar-
As has been said, the rock garden does not look well near a
building. But in the back yard of a suburban plot, a rock garden
will transform into an actual source of pleasure what is usually
the dullest corner.
It is essential to put the rock garden in an open situation and
not under the drip and shade of trees or overhanging and greedy
shrubs. Shade from a building or wall would do no harm, it it
were only for half the day, and it is a great help with our tropical
summers to have at least part of the rock garden facing north.
Many plants, such as campanulas, mossy saxifrages, and androsacefl
(rock jasmin) do better in half shade, and the flowers last longer
when not exposed to long hours of sunshine. In a small place, if it
is found necessary to put the rock garden Dear a tree, whose rOOtfl
would be sure to come after the good soil provided for the alpine-.
a small wall descending as deep, or somewhat deeper, than the
roots of the tree, and made of rough concrete, would be a great help
in keeping the tree roots in their place.
26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
A rock construction is not by any means the only place in which
alpines may be grown with pleasure and success. The larger and
more easily grown varieties can be very effectively used for edging
plants, and as most of them are more or less evergreen, they look
extremely well in that position. Edgings are very important, and
a beautiful border without a satisfactory edging is about as pleasing
as a beautiful dress without a collar. In Europe, where turf and
lawns are very much at home because of the damp climate, and
where labor is so cheap, grass edgings are commonly used, but here
lawn grass is not at home. It is an artificial and highly expensive
decoration, and if it is in narrow strips with edges, which must be
constantly trimmed, it hardly seems worth the trouble and expense
it costs, especially as it is brown and ugly for nearly half the year
here, while in Europe it is always green.
Near a building, as has been said, formal lines are necessary.
In such positions cut stone edgings look well and hold up small
plants perfectly. Cut stone edgings are expensive, but the expense
ends when they are bought. The clipping and trimming of grass
edgings never ends. For the greater part of the garden, native
stone partly buried and carefully chosen to look more or less even
in height will serve perfectly, and as one wishes to cover the edgings
with flowering and often evergreen plants, minor irregularities in
the stones are soon hidden. Many varieties, such as the evergreen
candytuft, double arabis, Dianthus deltoides, and Dianthus pluma-
rius, forget-me-not, Campanula carpatica, Alyssum saxatile, etc., etc.
do splendidly as edging plants and these are too easy and free grow-
ing for the rock garden. They nearly all seed freely and would be a
danger to tiny plants one or two inches high. While the rock
garden is new, and before many plants have been gotten together,
some of these coarser plants could be carefully used on the less
desirable parts of the construction, the highest part for instance,
which is the most exposed to heat and cold and drought. But care
should be taken not to allow them to seed down among the treasures.
Some people think Oenothera speciosa a suitable rock plant, but
though lovely as edging for a herbaceous border, it is far too free
ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 27
and vigorous to plant among alpines. Heather, on the other hand,
can well be used in both ways. For a formal edging near a house
Erica carnea has no rival, where box is not hardy. It can stand
any amount of winter sun if a few evergreen branches are put over
it from December to April, and it can be clipped into a formal
shape and is never more than six inches high. Its greatest quality,
however, is in the flowers, and the picture shows how freely these
are produced. The buds form in September and are plainly to be
seen all through the winter, while in April, after the first warm day,
they burst into bloom, a lovely warm pink. After a couple of
weeks, the flowers turn magenta and are less pretty, but if one is
careful to have no clashing color near, they are a joy for nearly a
month, and all this during terribly cold and often snowy April days.
They are often seen blooming bravely through two inches of snow
and seem none the worse when the warm spring sun melts it away.
In the rock garden, they are just as valuable.
The same rule applies to these stone edgings as to plants in the
rock garden proper, the stones protect the plants from drought
and frost and give them a chance to show off their flowers to the
best advantage, especially if the stones are gray and the flowers
In laying out a place, if it is larger than a small suburban plot,
there are usually slopes more or less steep to be dealt with. These
are often ignored, treated as if they were flat, and planted with
grass, shrubs, and trees. If the slope is at all steep the water
drains off it too fast to allow grass to be green very long in our
dry summers. Then one often sees trees and shrubs look as if
they were slipping down these banks. Nothing is less np
ful or less satisfying than this effect, and it is far better to I
the fact of the slope in laying out the place, and to put in re-
taining walls. If several such walla are used, one below the
others, small terraces are formed, such as one see- in Switzerland
and in Italy, and these give far better foothold to whatever plants
one desires to grow than b doping bank with the earth continually
washing away from the root-. It i- the same principle which we
28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
were considering in the construction of the rock garden. The
reader has only to look about his neighborhood to see the slipping
down effect of trees and shrubs, and how poor the grass is on a
If, to avoid this, retaining walls are put in, a new field for the
planting of alpines appears, and we come to what in England
is called Wall Gardening. There dry walls are used. In this
country, a dry wall, meaning a wall built of stones without cement,
gets pushed out of shape by our frosts and looks in time like a
wall in a nightmare, not at all a suitable border for a road or
decoration for a lawn. Miss G. Jekyll and other English authori-
ties recommend dry walls most highly, but they have very little
frost to contend with. In this country one can manage by having
the wall thoroughly cemented at the foundations and for eighteen
inches from the ground. Then, if half the other stones are made
fast with cement, say roughly every alternate square foot, the
other half may be planted and will give an excellent effect, probably
quite as good as if it were entirely covered with plants.
It is very important in making such a wall to watch the men
constructing it, otherwise they will throw in large stones, instead
of earth mixed with small stones, behind the wall. The whole idea
of a dry wall is that the plants should be able to root through
it into the bank of earth behind. If, when the tender roots push
back, they find only stones, the plants will naturally die. It
is necessary to enrich the soil and see that it has humus well mixed
with it, so that the plants can thrive. In building the dry wall,
as much care should be taken to ram down the soil and leave
no air spaces as in constructing the rock garden. It is really the
same idea, and it is also necessary to have the stones tip upward
a little, so that the rain may reach the plants between them. This
is called a battered wall and can be done by putting small stones
between the front of larger ones and carefully filling and ramming
the crevices between the soil. When finished, this should all be
Many and varied are the plants which can be grown in the re-
taining wall, and if it faces north our native plants, such as ferns,
columbine, the small two-leaved Solomon seal (Smilacina bi-
folia), and violets, with a few harebells, would make a lovely
ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 29
picture. It is best, as in all gardening, to put a good-sized group
of one variety before going on to plant the next. A confusion
of several kinds jumbled together would probably look about
as artistic as the bouquets thrown into carriages by peasant children
abroad. A wonderful help can be had from gray-leaved plants,
and among rock plants their names are legion: alyssum, arabis,
achillea, artemisia, Stachys lanata, and cerastium, to mention
a few of the easier kinds.
The common way of repeating the same plants at intervals
along a wall is as fatal to the picturesque or natural effect as it
is in the herbaceous border. It must have originated in the entirely
unimaginative mind of a hard-working gardener, who thought
much more of growing plants by the hundred than of observing
the ways nature had with them. Nature usually plants in groups
and never in rows, let it be noted bv the way.
Mr. Robinson says there are many alpine plants now cultivated
with difficulty in frames, which any beginner may grow on walls.
Now that is certainly encouraging to the beginner considering a
wall garden, and then it is such fun to see the delicate and lovely
little jewel-like plants so close to one's eyes.
If the retaining wall is not too high, a delightful opportunity
is offered by its flat top. In this picture, Cerastium tommtosiun
can be seen draping the top of a low retaining wall, and it makes
a pretty fringe or edging for the upright-growing irises. Here
is the cerastium not yet in bloom. You can see how it grows
between the stones.
Growing Alpines from Seed.
It has been mentioned that among the four principal considera-
tions in keeping up a rock garden are the saving and sowing of
seed. This seems to be a job particularly suitable for women. It
requires some thought and a good deal of time, as it is very neeessary
to collect seeds at the right moment, when they are dry, and before
they begin to drop, but it is not tiring or hard work, and it i-^
very interesting. All the authorities agree that the best and
healthiest plants are those raised from seed, and one's own seed
30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
is the freshest and most amusing to deal with. In this way,
one is constantly improving the different varieties by only saving-
seeds from the best specimens of a given kind.
At present and until the public demands more of the dealers,
seeds of many of even the most easily grown varieties must be
imported. Fortunately this is easy, not at all like importing
Paris gowns, and Mr. Correvon has all the varieties in cultivation
for sale at very low prices. There are about six thousand different
kinds of plants mentioned in his general catalogue, and nine-tenths
of these have been raised from seed at Geneva and are therefore
acclimated to low altitudes. It has been our custom to import
and sow about fifty varieties each winter, getting them into the
ground as soon as possible after New Years. We sow the larger
varieties in cold frames and the smaller and more difficult ones
in pans or pots, plunged in earth in the cold frames. After sowing,
the seeds are covered with snow, as Mr. Correvon says it helps
them to germinate. He recommends soil composed of one-third
peat, one-third loam, and one-third sand, granitic or lime rubble,
according to the variety.
One of the keenest pleasures of the alpine gardener is to visit
this frame in the spring and see the hundreds of little new treasures
at his disposal. Many, of course, have not come up in such a short
time and must be kept over sometimes for another year before they
germinate. In that case it is best to remove them to a half-shady
place, for if the tiny plants should appear, they might be burnt up
during one scorching day in July.
Freshly gathered seed germinates very much more quickly and
surely than old seed, so it is best to sow the seed we save ourselves
as soon as possible. This also results in the plants making a good
show of flowers the following season. After collecting seed from
the early-blooming alpines, we usually make a first showing in June,
then in July other varieties will have ripened their seed, and we
sow again. Some are sown in the open ground, the sturdier kinds
like the mountain pinks, Lychnis flos-cuculi and columbines ; others,
smaller and more delicate ones, are sown in the cold frame. The
ripening seed looks untidy, and there is one owner of a beautiful
rock garden who never allows any seed to ripen. But, until one
has enough of a given variety, it seems so much more reasonable
ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 31
to save and sow the fresh seed than to keep on buying plants.
After a couple of years, one could grow a few plants in reserve,
solely for the purpose of getting seed from them.
A good deal of leaf mould or humus helps seed to germinate,
as it keeps the soil open and porous.
Advantages over England.
We have all heard and read a great deal about the enormous
advantages of gardening in England. After gardening there for
ten summers, I have come to the conclusion that if the same
amount of skill and time were spent here as is spent in England on
gardens, we should have very nearly as much garden beauty as
they have. Not the same beauty of spreading lawns and hedges
of holly and yew, but wonderful flowering trees and shrubs, which
either cannot be grown in Europe, or present miserable objects
with very few flowers in English gardens. Our glorious laurel I
have seen there languishing in pots, and taking into consideration
its many and wonderful beauties, there is surely no European
shrub to compare with it. Our native rhododendrons and azaleas
are also plants. of incomparable garden value. In England, beds
of peaty soil are made, in which these plants, with some of our
andromedas, huckleberries, and lilies, are grown, and as there is
difficulty about making them thrive, they are very greatly admired.
Here, on the contrary, people worry over box, English ivy, tender
retinosporas, and other European varieties, instead of giving a
proper place and setting to our own plants.
From lack of knowledge and imagination, European plants and
methods have been used in this totally different climate with
deplorable results, and vice versa, American plants abroad art
often far from being beautiful.
Hut, if the choice of suitable plants has a threat deal to do with
poor gardens in America, the lack of trained helpers in gardens
has a still more unfortunate effect. A trained gardener gets five or
six times the wages here that he is accustomed to receive abroad.
And then, who does lie have to help him? Instead of under-gar-
deners, hoping to rise to be heads in their turn, and trained in
32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
garden work from the time they were small boys, he has usually to
put up with Italians fresh from working on a railroad track or in
an iron foundry. These men often speak little English and have
absolutely no knowledge of plant life.
Where there are greenhouses trained helpers are usually found,
but in a hardy garden one gardener with men accustomed to the
roughest day labor are customary. Now how can it be supposed
that beautiful gardens can result from this system? The head
gardener is only human, and if he is obliged to do all the planting,
sowing of seed, handling of seedlings in their various stages, moving
of trees and shrubs, has to remember about all the watering, and
pick vegetables and flowers, it is obvious that very much must
This situation is also made far worse by the fact that, owing to
our hot summers and cold winters, more than one-half of the most
important planting has to be done in May. In April, the ground
is usually sticky and wet from melting snow, and in June it is too
It has also seemed to me that head gardeners as a rule feel they
have done their full duty, if only they can produce in a greenhouse
roses and carnations as large and stiff as the average florist has for
sale. They are often unashamed of the most deplorable looking
When rich people here learn to care for hardy flowers as they are
cared for abroad, our gardens will be just as beautiful, only they
will not be so numerous, because the high price of labor makes
them impossible, except for the very rich.
This is why I have talked against lawns and clipped edges. If
our one and only gardener spends his time tending them, he cannot
be growing new plants, however simple their cultivation may be,
and it is by continually sowing new seed and adding fresh beauty
that our gardens remain interesting.
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM.
By Edward I. Farrixgtox, Weymouth Heights, Mass.
Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, January 12,
"For a thousand years and then another thousand years, and
so on forever," reads the solemn agreement by which the City of
Boston enters into contract with Harvard University to care for
and perpetuate the Arnold Arboretum in Jamaica Plain, undoubt-
edly the greatest tree museum in the world. Curiously enough,
the great majority of people, even in Boston, know nothing about
the Arboretum or its purposes. This is distinctly unfortunate, for
the loss is not the Arboretum's, but that of the public which should
profit by its work and enjoy its beauty.
Expert landscape gardeners and nurserymen know the Arbore-
tum as a clearing house of knowledge. They use it. The Arnold
Arboretum is the only place in this country where data on the
comparative hardiness of woody plants covering a long period of
years can be found. Perhaps if the Arboretum were not so modest
about tooting its own horn, it would receive greater credit for what
it has done. Within its borders nature is working miracles which
must have a profound effect on all gardens of the future. Every
fruit grower has an interest in the Arboretum. Future years will
yield finer Apples and Pears and Peaches than any you yet have
tasted. They may come from crosses with Chinese trees intro-
duced by Arboretum explorers.
We know little so far about the possibilities of nuts as a food.
Yet the time may come, and before long, too, when the whole world
will be eating nuts. Practically every nut tree which will grow in
this climate is now to be found in the Arnold Arboretum.
tor its value to the home gardens of the country, nobody can
estimate it. Every plant brought from foreign lands — and they
number thousands — if suited to this clima* ^sted and re-
34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
ported upon in the Arboretum trial grounds. In this way the
people of the country are protected from losses and discourage-
ments. Where else can the public learn the secrets of the Rhodo-
dendrons, the eccentricities of the Azaleas, the varied habits of the
Viburnums, and the unexpected values of the Lilacs?
How are all these new things obtained? A book of romantic
adventure might be written in answer to that question. Plant
hunters sent out by the Arboretum have penetrated to corners of
the world where the foot of a white man has never trodden before.
The most famous of these plant hunters is Ernest H. Wilson, who
has given hundreds of plants to the world through the Arnold
Arboretum. How he rolled down a mountain side in western
China and lay for weeks in a mission hut is now a well-known story.
Among the most notable plants introduced by the Arnold Arbore-
tum are Azalea Kaempferi, the tree Lilac, the Sargent Cherry, the
climbing Hydrangea, and the Japanese Barberry.
The Arboretum had its origin in the imagination of George B.
Emerson and the generosity of James Arnold. Mr. Arnold, a New
Bedford merchant, left $100,000 to be used for horticultural and
agricultural purposes. Mr. Emerson was one of the trustees in
charge of this fund. He it was who formulated the plan by which
Harvard University took the bequest and turned over a part of
the Bussey farm for an arboretum in which every tree and shrub
suited to this climate should be grown. Later an agreement was
made with the city of Boston whereby the latter contracted to lay
out a system of walks and drives, police the grounds, and pay
whatever taxes might be levied. In return the Arboretum was
made virtually a part of the park system. This great tree museum
now occupies 220 acres of hill, valley, and meadow.
For the most part the trees have been arranged in family groups
so that they can be studied to the best advantage. Single indi-
viduals of the native trees have been planted far enough away from
the groups to make possible their full and free development.
The Arboretum is designed for serious study, yet everywhere
the attempt has been made to group the trees and shrubs in such
a way that the natural features of the trees may be preserved.
Much can be seen by walking or driving around the public roads,
but much is also missed. The only way to get all that the Arbore-
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 35
turn offers is to leave the main drives for the grass covered paths
which lead to the smaller groups. With map at hand, it is an
easy matter to locate any general group of trees and shrubs. Yet
many of the foreign plants now on trial do not appear. Coming
down Bussey Hill, for example; at this point there is a fine collec-
tion of Chinese shrubs and close by the celebrated Cedars of
The gates of the Arboretum are open from sunrise until sunset.
Everybody is free to enter. You can spend an hour or a day there,
with profit and with pleasure. Take your luncheon and eat it on
the grass under the waving trees if you care to do so. Follow the
grassy paths; they lead to unexpected beauties. You will find
every tree and shrub tagged with its right name. Take a note
book along and jot down the names of such plants as you would like
in your own garden. If you want any special information, stop
at the Administration building near the Jamaica Plain entrance,
and it will be given you.
This building was erected for the Arboretum by the late Horatio
Hollis Hunnewell, whose garden and pinetum at Wellesley are
known to all students of trees. Here are thirty-two thousand
bound volumes, together with many pamphlets, constituting a
library of incomparable value. The herbarium is believed to be
the richest and most complete collection of material representing
the coniferous plants of the world which has ever been made. It
contains also a collection of the woods of North America. The
dried specimens are stored in fireproof metal cabinets, and all are
so carefully indexed that any one among the hundreds of thousand^
can be located in less than one minute.
In one corner of the upper floor of the Administration building
is the office of Professor Charles S. Sargent, the first and only
director of the Arboretum, and the man most responsible for it-
development. It was Professor Sargent who nursed the institution
through its early days of stress and trouble. Nothing but his
enthusiasm could have withstood the depressing public indifference
and the lack of expert cooperation. It was a big task to lay the
foundations of an institution which is to last two thousand year-
and so on forever. His wisdom and foresight have made it what
it is today. I lis monument has been 1 while he yet live
36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
The natural way in which interesting specimens are displayed
is to be found on the boundary walls, where hardy vines are trained.
Not only are the vines themselves offered for study in this way, but
the manner in which they can be used to the best advantage is
shown. Professor Sargent takes particular pride in the Grape
vines growing on the walls, for in his opinion many people fail to
realize the decorative qualities of these vines. The Bitter Sweets
and many other native vines are also grown.
The only formal planting in the Arboretum is to be found in the
shrub garden, near the Forest Hills entrance. Here hardy shrubs
in great variety are arranged in parallel beds on the only piece
of level ground which the Arboretum boasts. These shrubs
have been so placed that the visitor can easily compare all the
species of any genus in a short time. In this way he is able to
select the particular variety which he may want for any particular
purpose. Unfortunately, the space which can be devoted to this
collection is too small to contain all the shrubs which can be grown
in the Arboretum. The Dogwoods, Rhododendrons, Viburnums,
and the like, will be found in other places, usually near the trees
to which they are related.
The shrub garden contains probably the best collection of wild
Roses in the country.
Among the Roses now growing in the shrub garden, Rosa multi-
flora cathayensis is of particular interest. It is the Rose from which
sprang the Crimson Rambler, which has long been cultivated by
the Chinese and came to this country by way of Japan and England.
Likewise it is the progenitor of the Seven Sisters Rose, which
used to be common in country gardens. This Rose is established
in the Arboretum, flowering and ripening its fruit every year.
Rosa Hugonis or Father Hugo's Rose was found by a missionary
in China and came to this country by way of England. It promises
to prove a splendid Rose for New England gardens, being perfectly
hardy and bearing oceans of yellow flowers which are set so closely
on the branches that they touch. It is a pity that the Arboretum
has no room for a complete Rose garden, where every species,
variety, and hybrid, old and new, might be cultivated. There
is genuine need for just such a garden somewhere and the Arbore-
tum already has a nucleus. How better could any wealthy man
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 37
perpetuate his name than by providing the Arboretum with the
means of establishing a real Rose garden, such as exists nowhere
else in the world.
Some years ago Mr. J. G. Jack, of the Arboretum staff, visited
the far East, and although he spent only a short time in Korea, he
discovered several interesting new plants, among them Dier villa
florida venusta, perhaps the handsomest of all the species, varieties,
and hybrids of the Weigela. It is a shrub which grows five feet
tall, and in Spring is completely covered with dense clusters of
rosy-pink flowers from an inch and a half to two inches long.
It is perfectly hardy, too, which cannot be said of all the "Weigelas.
It grows rapidly, and no shrub known bears larger crops of flowers.
It is one of the purposes of the Arboretum to search out the best
varieties among the different shrubs, testing them for hardiness
and reporting on their availability for northern gardens.
Repeated tests have shown that many of the Deutzias, handsome
as they are, are not suited to cultivation in New England. It is
not often that plants are actually killed, but they are frozen back
so hard that they do not bloom. Deutzia parvifolia, Dcutzia
crenata, and a few others are known to be perfectly hardy. Several
Deutzias from western China are now being tested in the Arbore-
tum, and it is hoped that some of them will prove valuable ad-
ditions to New England gardens.
The Arnold Arboretum has the largest and most complete collec-
tion of Loniceras, or Honeysuckles, in the world, just as Mr.
Render, of its staff, is the leading Lonicera expert in the world.
Loniccra Korolkorii is a shrub of peculiar elegance. A bush
Honeysuckle with grayish leaves is a novelty. At times this
gray is so intense as to be almost blue, while again it is nearer gr
\ iew it in the morning when covered with dew, and it looks as
though encrusted with a kind of enameled jewelry. Many different
Honeysuckles have been tested out at the Arboretum, diml
v« 11 a- those having a bush form. Among the newer arrivals
i- Lnnicrra Hcnnji, one of the few evergreen climbers hardy in this
baria arborea is ■ discovery of Mr. Wilson's ■ ehanning
shrub if given plantyof ell n As I matter of fact it will
insist upon having all the room it needs, because it just naturally
38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
moves out and smothers anything in its way. The bloom of
Sorbaria arborea comes along in June, and lasts through most of the
Summer. There is an early burst of bloom, but it is seldom that
a large number of flowers are open at one time. They make a floral
procession which is as interesting as it is pleasing. Judging from
the specimens in the Arboretum, this is not a particularly good
plant for small gardens, but is excellent for use on large estates.
There would be fewer disappointments if amateurs in general
would choose some other variety of Privet than the common Cali-
fornia Privet when planting a hedge. There are some sections
where California Privet thrives, but in the North it is very likely
to be badly winter-killed. If you will visit the shrub garden at
the Arboretum you will find half a dozen varieties growing side by
side, and can study them at your leisure. Most of the Privets
have attractive blossoms if they are not kept trimmed, while in
the Fall they yield a profusion of black and blue berries. Ligustrum
Ibota is a most desirable hedge Privet for this section. It is also
attractive when grown as a specimen or in mass planting.
Among the plants introduced by the Arboretum from central
and western China, through the explorations of Mr. Wilson, none
give greater promise as garden plants for the North than some of
the Cotoneasters, of which twenty species and varieties are now
established here. Cotoneaster hupehensis is a species with very
showy flowers and is perhaps the most worthwhile shrub for north-
ern gardens which Mr. Wilson has brought back from the far East.
It is handsome in the Fall as well as in the Spring, for then its
branches are covered with scarlet, lustrous fruits. Several of the
Cotoneasters grow six or eight feet high, while others form dense
mats of prostrate stems, but nearly all have dark green and very
lustrous leaves, which retain their color until the late Autumn.
Besides the collection in the shrub garden, there is another con-
taining the newest Chinese Cotoneasters in a long bed on the
southern slope of Bussey Hill.
Spiraea nipponica or bracteata is a particularly handsome and
hardy Japanese shrub, which is not known in American gardens
as well as it should be. The family of Spiraeas is a very large one,
and the amateur finds it difficult to choose intelligently among the
varieties offered by nurserymen. It will help greatly to make a
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 39
little study of the plants found in the Arboretum collection as they
come into bloom. You will find that some of the least well known
are among the best.
An unusually good specimen of the climbing Hydrangea, Hy-
drangea peiiolaris, is to be found growing on the brick wall of the
Administration Building, to which it clings as firmly as Ivy. This
is also a Japanese plant, and the only climbing vine with conspicu-
ous flowers which can be grown on a wall without artificial support
in the Northern States. It can also be used to climb up the trunks
of trees, and individuals seventy or eighty feet high are not un-
common. Its value as a wall covering is increased by the early
appearance of dark green leaves, which are nearly full grown before
there is a sign of a leaf on any of the Virginia Creepers.
Magnolias are among the showiest of flowers, and several
varieties have been planted around the Administration Building.
Magnolia macrophylla is one of the most interesting species. It
has the largest leaves and the largest flowers of any tree which grows
outside of the tropics. The leaves are over thirty inches long, and
eight inches wide, while blossoms a foot in diameter are not un-
usual. These flowers are creamy white, fragrant, and with a very
deep cup. They may be called without exaggeration nature's
lodging houses for the rose bugs. I have tipped up one of these
blossoms and had scores of these insects come tumbling out.
Professor Sargent says that planting this Magnolia in the garden
is a good way to trap the rose bugs to keep them away from the
Of course it is impossible to duplicate at the Arnold Arboretum
anything like the wonderful Cherry blossom shows which have long
been a feature of Japanese life. Nevertheless, the display along
the drive leading from the Forest Hills entrance is worth while
going a long distance 1 to see. It is passing Strange that nunc use
is not made of these ornamental flowering trees in home gardens.
The Primus fubhirtella, lias perhaps the most beautiful flowers of all
the Cherries. It blooms profusely every year, and holds its blos-
soms much longer than any other single-flowered Cherry. Un-
fortunately, it cannot be multiplied by seed, as the seed produ
an entirely different plant. The only way to propagate Frvma
subkirteUa is by grafting or by cut tip
40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
The Sargent Cherry, or as it is now commonly called, Primus
serrulata sachalinensis, is one of the most important trees in north-
ern Japan and Saghalin, where it is used for lumber. When it is
in flower it is the handsomest of all the large size Cherries. This
is one of the most important introductions made by the Arboretum,
both as an ornamental tree and as a timber tree. The Cherry
plantation in the Arboretum is being extended, and in years to
come will doubtless make a show approximating to some extent
that which attracts the Japanese by thousands to the Cherry
orchards in the Spring. A large number of Cherry trees have also
been supplied to Rochester, N. Y., where several acres in the public
parks are being devoted to their culture.
Hardly second to the Cherries in beauty are the Crabapples,
which are also grouped near the Forest Hills entrance, with a
second collection on Peters Hill. These Crabapples make a won-
derful burst of bloom in the Spring, and ought to be better known
to garden makers everywhere.
Malus floribunda is a tree without a country. That it was sent
to Europe from Japan more than sixty years ago is well known,
but nobody knows with certainty from what country Japan
adopted it. We can only assume that it came from China, like
many of the other crabs. In any event, it is wonderfully hand-
some, never failing to cover itself with masses of beautiful flowers,
deep rose in the bud, but turning to white after the petals open.
This little tree is far better for home gardens than many of the
shrubs commonly used. Professor Sargent calls it one of the
handsomest and most desirable small trees which can be grown in
the northern United States.
Malus Sargentii is another small crab, the diminutive size of
which makes it a good subject for small gardens. It was discov-
ered by Professor Sargent on the borders of a salt marsh in northern
Japan. Although rarely growing more than a few feet high, its
branches spread out over a space ten or twelve feet in diameter.
One attractive feature about this crab is that its fruit remains on
the branches until Spring.
Trees raised from seed gathered from plants in a large collection
like the one in the Arboretum rarely resemble the parent. While
this makes trouble for the botanist, it has a distinct advantage for
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 41
the gardener, often resulting in the development of beautiful new
forms, which come spontaneously. Such a natural hybrid is
Malus Arnoldiana. It appeared a few years ago among the seed-
lings of floribunda, and promises to be a welcome addition to our
gardens. Many persons consider this to be the handsomest of all
ornamental crabs. Its flowers and fruit are twice as large as those
of Mains floribunda.
Some of the Pear trees are almost as attractive as the crabs.
Pyrus Calleryana is not among the handsomest and the fruit is of
no value. It is believed, though, that this tree offers special
advantages to American pomologists, who are seeking a stock
resistant to blight on which to graft garden Pears. Pear trees are
natives of Europe, China, and the Himalayas. There are no
native American Pears. Some of the Chinese species have been
growing in the Arboretum since 1882, when Dr. Bretschneider
sent seeds there from Peking.
It is when the Lilacs are in bloom that the greatest number of
people visit the Arnold Arboretum, probably because of the fame
which has been given the Lilac show by the newspapers. Lilacs
are used as a border along one side of Bussey Road, not far from
the Forest Hills entrance. Many people speak of this section of
the road as Lilac Drive. In late May, when the Lilac show is at
its height, thousands of people come to the Arboretum to see the
magnificent burst of bloom. Altogether, though, there are almost
two months in which the Lilacs are in flower in the collection,
including nearly every species and variety of the common Lilac
alone, with twenty species in addition and several hybrids.
In his various expeditions, Mr. Wilson has discovered a Dumber
of extra-fine Lilacs, one of the best being Syringa Jvlumae, a hardy
and very shapely shrub, with dark green foliage, and compact
clusters of fragrant, pale rose-colored flowers. It is particularly
valuable as it blooms later than most true Lilac-. While sw<
it lacks the strong fragrance of pubescent, which is the most ti
rant of all the Lilacs. In respect to perfume, however, even
pubescent will soon have a rival, for during the last trip of Mr.
W ilson through the far East, he discovered a Lilac in Korea which
he says is more fragrant than any which has yet been grown on the
American continent. In about five years thifl Statement can be
42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
tested by Boston people, for the seeds brought back by Mr. Wilson
should have produced flowering plants by that time.
Syringa villosa is a very handsome Lilac with one point distinctly
in its favor. It blooms late, thus prolonging the flowering season
of the Lilacs. On the other hand, it has an odor which is distinctly
disagreeable. Villosa makes a fine, round-topped bush, and if
you refrain from sniffing the blossoms, you will find it a splendid
acquisition. Look it up next Spring when the Lilacs are in bloom.
A remarkable Lilac known as Syringa reflexa grows on the
mountains of western Hupeh, in central China, where it was
discovered by Mr. Wilson several years ago. It is especially
interesting because it is the only Lilac with pendent flower clusters.
There are scores of Lilac varieties in commerce, but trials made
at the Arboretum show that the list of kinds suited to the average
garden can easily be culled to a dozen. It will be worth the while
of any garden maker fond of lilacs to visit the Arboretum next
Spring, when the flowers are in bloom, and note those which please
him most. Then, by consulting an Arboretum Bulletin, he can
find whether they are suitable for culture in home gardens.
On the south side of Lilac Drive the Viburnums are grouped,
and they, too, make a remarkable display over a long season. The
Viburnums are highly valuable, because they give us flowers very
early in the season, as well as handsome fruit in the Fall. Four
American species have been used freely in the roadside plantations
of the Arboretum. One of the most satisfactory is Viburnum
cassinoides, & native New England shrub with a broad, round top,
and thick lustrous leaves. The flowers are cream white and the
fruit, while pink for a short time, gradually changes color to dark
blue. Sometimes green, pink, and blue berries are to be found on
the same cluster at the same time.
Another native Viburnum is pubescens, which deserves much
wider recognition on the part of landscape gardeners than it has
yet received. The success achieved by the use of native shrubs
of this character in the Arboretum planting indicates the possi-
bilities which our own plants possess as subjects for landscape
work on a large scale. Viburnum pubescens, especially, grows in
limestone soil, yet lime is not necessary for it, and it can be grown
over most of the country. This species has small pointed leaves, and
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 43
compact clusters of white flowers, followed by shining black fruits.
No other Viburnum flowers more profusely. In the collection of
Viburnums are many representatives of western Asia. Unfortu-
nately, however, the group does not include the beautiful evergreen
species of southern Japan and China, which are not hardy in New
The most interesting specimens in the collection are those which
belong to the Opulus group, Viburnum Sargentii being one of the
best representatives. It is hardy, shapely, and the flowers are pure
white. When this Viburnum is blooming it is the most beautiful
of all its class. Seek it out next June at the side of Bussey Road.
The Azaleas occupy a place of their own on the side of both the
Bussey and Hemlock Hills. The most popular collection is on the
former elevation, where a large number of the plants are grouped
along Azalea path. Few flowers in the Arboretum attract more
attention or give greater pleasure. Most gorgeous of all the
Azaleas is Kaempferi, which was introduced by the Arboretum
into the gardens of the United States and Europe in 1893. It was
first raised from seed collected by Professor Sargent in Japan. It
is perfectly hardy, but the flowers are so delicate, when exposed to
the sun, that they soon fade. The greatest beauty of Azalea
Kaempferi is obtained when the plants are grown in deep or partial
In introducing .izalca Kaempferi to New England the Arnold
Arboretum has given our gardens a prize not readily excelled. It
is a magnificent plant, and in time will be grown in great numbers,
as landscape gardeners come to know it better. Moreover, it is
just as adaptable to small gardens as to large estates. No one
living in Boston should fail to see the Azalea show at the Arboretum.
Another Azalea which makes a wonderful hurst of bloom is
poukhanense which was introduced into the Arboretum by Mr.
Jack on the occasion of his trip to Korea some years ago. It was
named for Poukhan, a Korean mountain, where it has been found
by a French missionary. A beautiful round-topped, compact
shrub, with large rosy-pink and fragrant flower-, it seems to 1"
perfectly hardy anywhere in the Arboretum, where it has been
flowering for several years. It should prow a good plant for New
England garden-, and people who are interested in Rhododendron-
44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
of all kinds would do well to seek it out when it flowers next May.
It is to be found on the upper side of Azalea Path.
One of the big floral displays at the Arboretum is made when the
Rhododendrons come into flower. The Rhododendron collection
borders the road at the base of Hemlock Hill. Unfortunately, a
great many people miss it because they go to the Forest Hills or
Jamaica Plain entrances, which are a long way off. By leaving
the elevated train at Forest Hills and walking up South Street to
the South Street entrance, the Rhododendrons are reached in a
very few minutes. The Arboretum collection is so extensive, and
the plants arranged so skilfully that it offers an unparalleled
opportunity to become familiar with the best varieties, as well as
with the methods to follow in the culture of Rhododendrons in this
climate. There are three native American species and one other,
Rhododendron Smirnowii, from the Caucasus, which are perfectly
hardy, and can be planted with confidence.
Rhododendron album grandiflorum is a white flowered form of a
hybrid cataivbiense. Many hybrids have been produced by crossing
Rhododendron cataivbiense with various Himalayan species, as well
as with the native Rhododendron maximum. Unhappily, only
comparatively few of these hybrids are hardy in this country, even
in exceptional positions like that in the Arboretum, where the beds
are protected by Hemlock Hill from the sun in March and April.
Of the three native Rhododendrons, maximum and catawbiense
are well known. The third, carolinianum, is much less generally
cultivated, but it is to be found growing to perfection in the Arbore-
tum. It, too, comes from the Carolina mountains, but has a dwarf
habit. Its flowers are grown in profusion, and seldom show any
trace of rust. There is every reason to believe that this introduc-
tion will fill a long felt want for a hardy dwarf Rhododendron
whose flowers have no trace of magenta. It seldom grows more
than eight feet high, and has dark green leaves, covered with rusty
dots below. The flowers come in June, and are borne in great
profusion, fairly smothering the plant in a rose-colored blanket.
Incidentally it may be said that this Rhododendron was named by
Mr. Rehder of the Arboretum staff.
England is fighting now with the Rose as her national flower.
France has her Fleur-de-lis; but the United States has officially no
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 45
national flower. If such a flower should be chosen, probably the
Mountain Laurel would be the most conspicuous candidate for
the honor. The Mountain Laurel is not found in any other land,
but it is very widespread in America. There is a big collection in
the Arboretum, near the South Street entrance, at the base of
Hemlock Hill. The flowering of the Laurels is the last of the great
Arboretum flower shows of the year, and none of those which
precede it are more beautiful, for the Mountain Laurel, or the
Calico Bush as it is often called, is in the judgment of many flower-
lovers the most beautiful of all North American shrubs or small
This great Laurel show in the Arnold Arboretum did not happen
all at once. Jackson Dawson, the wonderful gardener who helped
during all his life to make the world more beautiful, selected many
of these Laurel plants in the mountains of Connecticut, Massachu-
setts, and New York.
Not far from the Rhododendrons and Laurels is a collection of
Yews, which excite much attention. The Japanese Yew, Ta.rus
cuspidata, is considered by Professor Sargent to be the most gener-
ally valuable plant which the northern L nited States has obtained
from Japan. Its native home is in the forest of northern Japan,
where it becomes a tree forty or fifty feet high. It has not grown
as tall as in its native country, but is perfectly hardy, and never
suffers in the coldest winter. It is an excellent hedge plant, too,
and can be used advantageously in the decoration of formal gardens.
Another very interesting Japanese tree is Acanthopanax ricini-
folium. As it grows at the side of a little pond not far from the
Forest Hills Entrance, it makes an unusually attractive appearance.
This tree belongs to the Aralia family, and the large, drooping
leaves resemble in shape those of the Castor Oil Bean. The small,
white flowers, which are produced in broad, flat clusters, do not
appear until the middle of August, and are followed by small.
black, shining fruit. People who want to cultivate a perfectly
haidy tree, unlike any tree which is a native of North America or
Europe, will find this Acanthopanai highly satisfactory.
Among the (hvarfer Japanese plants the Junipers an ially
interesting. They are to be found on the north side of Bussey Hill.
The JuniperuB ehinerms, var. SargenHi, is the handsomest of the
46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
dwarf Junipers which can be grown successfully in this climate.
This shrub was named for Professor Sargent because he was the
first man to collect it, finding the seeds in southern Hokkaido, in
1892. The plants raised from the seed which he brought home are
probably the only ones in cultivation. It can be seen to advantage
on the Hemlock Hill road, opposite the Laurels, where there are
several large plants.
Several other Junipers are to be found in the Arboretum collec-
tion, and are of particular interest to landscape gardeners. Some
of the more prostrate forms are highly valuable for covering banks
and the margin of ponds. Juniperus horizontalis is an especially
good garden plant, and Juniperus procumbens, a Japanese species,
is being planted largely in California. It is perfectly hardy in the
Arboretum, and may be grown as well here as in the west.
Eucommia uhnoides is the so-called hardy Rubber-tree and one of
the most interesting of Chinese plants. The leaves contain a
small amount of rubber, as can be seen by pulling a leaf apart.
It has no economic value but Eucommia is a good ornamental tree
for the northern states on account of its thick, dark green, shining
leaves and good habit. It is well established in the Arboretum
where it has flowered.
The plantation of young Cedars of Lebanon is the result of an
experiment in naturalization undertaken by the Arboretum. The
Cedar of Lebanon grows on the Lebanon Range in Syria, and also
on the Anti-Taurus Mountains in Asia Minor, a more northern
and much colder region. In its southern form it is not hardy in
Massachusetts and an effort to secure a hardy race of this important
and interesting tree led the Arboretum several years ago to have
seeds gathered at the northern limits of its range in Asia Minor.
Plants raised from these seeds have been growing in the Arboretum
for fifteen years in exposed, windswept positions, and have not
been injured by the exceptional cold of several winters. The
seedlings of no other conifer raised in the Arboretum have grown
so rapidly, the largest of these plants having attained the height
of twenty-two feet in twelve years from the time the seed was
As had been said, the Arnold Arboretum is really a museum of
trees, the greatest institution of the sort in the world. It is fitting,
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 47
therefore, that the native trees should have a very large representa-
tion. They have been grouped for easy study, and can be found
with but little difficulty. Among the handsomest are the Oaks,
and they are particularly beautiful in the Arboretum, because
allowed to grow in a natural way. The Red Oak rears its huge
trunk from a bed of wild Asters, a natural forest floor in the Arbore-
Among the most interesting of the deciduous trees are the Maples,
a large collection of which may be found near the shrub garden. It
includes both native and foreign species. The fastigiate Sugar
Maple, Acer saccharum, var. columnar e, is of particular interest to
landscape gardeners, as it can be used as a substitute for the more
short lived Lombardy Poplar. It is quite as pyramidal in form,
and handsomer in foliage, but of course does not grow nearly so
rapidly. This column-like Maple was first discovered in a Newton
cemetery, and whatever trees of the type exist at the present time
have come from this parent.
Many visitors to the Arboretum find the pinetum the most
interesting feature of all. The pinetum is close to the Walter
Street gate. Among the notable trees to be found there is the
Carolina Hemlock, a native of the Blue Ridge, where it form-
extensive forests on high mountain slopes. It is one of the most
beautiful of the coniferous trees that are hardy and that can be
successfully grown in the northern states. The Carolina Hemlock
was first raised in the Arboretum more than thirty years ago.
Judging from the behavior of the tree, it may be placed among the
six most desirable conifers that can be planted in southern New
England, the others being the White Pine, the Red Pine, the North-
ern Hemlock, the White Fir of Colorado, and the Japanese .1
The last named fir, which is also called Abie* homolepis, i- <>ne of
the handsomest and most satisfactory of all the conifers which
Japan has sent to this country. It has dark green leaves, which an"
silvery-white on the lower surface, and it- cones are rather unusual
in color, being a violet purple. There is a tree in the Hnnnewell
pinetum fifty-five feet high, with branches which sweep tie/ ground,
and illustrate the beauty of the mature specimen. The Arbore-
tum trees an- smaller, but already are producing their handsome
48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Many coniferous trees have produced abnormal forms, that is,
individuals with abnormally erect or pendent branches, or with
short branches which grow so slowly that they form little round-
topped bushes often not more than two feet high. All such plants
are interesting, some of them are beautiful. They have always
been favorites with nurserymen, and an unusually large collection
is cultivated in the Arboretum. A form of the White Pine, with
erect growing branches is called Pinus strobus fastigiaia. The tree
from which the plants in the Arboretum were propagated was
found in the woods of Massachusetts many years ago by Jackson
Dawson. This pine is considered the handsomest of the conifers
with erect-growing branches which can be grown in the northern
In the Arboretum are weeping forms of the common Red Cedar,
Juniperus virginiana, with pendulous branches. Of the numerous
seedling forms of the Red Cedar this is one of the most distinct.
It is also one of the handsomest of the hardy conifers with pendu-
The so-called Weeping Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis pendula, is
often called the Sargent Hemlock in honor of the late Henry
Winthrop Sargent of Fishkill Landing (now Beacon) New York,
who in his time had one of the largest collections of conifers in
The beauty of the Arboretum does not pass with the passing of
Summer. On the contrary, the Fall display of fruits, berries, and
brilliant foliage is almost as fine as that made by the flowers in the
Spring. Evonymus Bungeanus is a native of northern China, and is
a small tree with slightly pendulous branches. When Fall comes,
its narrow leaves turn a clear bright yellow. The greatest beauty
of this plant, though, lies in its fruit, which is pink and very abun-
dant. The fruit is held for several weeks after the leaves fall, and
makes a glorious display along the Meadow Road, worth twenty
minutes of any man's time to visit. Nowhere else in all the world
can so many different plants with brilliant Autumn foliage and
handsome Fall fruits be found in one collection. Likewise there is
no other garden in all the world where these plants can be so easily
and conveniently studied.
Every garden maker by rights should plant with the idea of
keeping his garden gay with color practically the year round. As
THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 49
Bacon puts it: "I do hold it in the Royall Ordering of Gardens
that there ought to be gardens for all the months of the year; in
which severally things of beauty may be there in season." One
of the good plants to use is Ligustrum vulgarc foliosum. This is a
form of the common European Privet, but differs from it in having
narrow leaves and larger fruit. It holds its leaves without a change
of color until the beginning of Winter, which makes it a good sub-
ject for garden decoration. Its black berries are borne in great
profusion and in large clusters which add to its ornamental value.
Even though the leaves may fall and the berries be eaten by the
birds, it is still possible to have plenty of color in the garden by
planting shrubs which possess red and yellow stems, particularis-
tic Dogwoods of different kinds. In a corner of the Meadow
Road in the Arboretum a handsome collection of American Cornels
may be found. Here we see Cornus stolonifcra with red stems, and
its variety flaviramca with yellows terns. These plants, with Kcrria
japonica to provide rich green stems, are splendid for any garden.
Even when the ground is blanketed with snow there is much of
interest and beauty within the Arboretum gates. It is then that
the Conifers, always delightful, show up to the best advantage.
Scores of trees and shrubs carry their gaily colored fruit well into
Winter. Some of the Hawthorns, of which there are several
groups, keep their berries until Spring, and so do the Barberries.
As a matter of fact it has been found from actual observation in
the Arboretum that it is possible in this climate to have flowers
every month in the year except possibly December. The foreign
Witch Hazels begin to flower in late Winter, and last through until
March, when some of the Willows burst into bloom.
Perhaps all this will give you at least a meager conception of the
great work which the Arboretum is doing, the great task to which
it lias set its hand, and what it offers to the public as well as to
specialists and nurserymen.
The Arnold Arboretum is a great living museum of trees and
shrubs. It is more than that. It is a wonderful example of land-
scape gardening, one of the best in the world, [ts influence upon
American horticulture is incalculable, and this influence must
necessarily go on growing, as long, may we hope, as the Arboretum
lasts, that is to say, for a thousand years and then another thousand
years, and so on forever.
NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR OUR SCANT FOOD
By Prof. U. P. Hedrick, Geneva, N. Y.
Delivered before the Society, February 2, 1918.
Economists prophesy a deficiency in the world's food supply.
The cost of living everywhere portends accuracy in their divinations
The fast and furious struggle between nations and individuals for
land upon which to grow food augurs lean years to come. Census
enumerations of population presage sooner or later a dearth of
ammunition among the multiplying peoples of the earth to carry
on the battle of life. Of all this you need to be reminded rather
So many men have stated and attempted to solve the problem
of the future food supply that it would seem that the subject has
been wholly talked out from the facts at hand. Indeed, there has
been so much said and written about hard times at hand and famine
ahead that I doubt if you are pleased to have your premonitions
reawakened by further forebodings.
Agricultural economists discuss three rather general means of
securing'a food supply for those who live later when the earth teems
with human beings. These are: conservation of resources; greater
acreages under cultivation; and increased yields from improved
plants and through better tillage. It is difficult to anticipate the
problems that will confront US when people swarm on the land, M
now in India or China, but 1 venture the prediction that it' in that
day " the evil arrows of famine" are sent upon us, a fourth means of
supplying food will l>e found quite as important as the three named.
We shall find, long before famine overtakes us, that the natural
1 This eddreei wns originally ■ pri'sid.-ntial tddreai bofow iii>- Society for Hort i c ultura l
Si I'M. ■• ami was printed in Um report <>f tin- S.>< i.-l > fur 1913. I' was Rivon lwf,, r .< the »«r
and its reviebx ami repetition MMUM to the writer i < i ^i i t i»-« I I'v the worloVirldta ■hortage of
food brought alxnit by tlio war.
52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
capacity of soils and climates to produce a diversity of crops is one
of the greatest resources for an increased food supply. As yet,
multiplicity of crops as a means of augmenting the supply of food
has received little attention and I want to bring you to a better
realization of its possibilities in the half hour at my disposal,
attempting to show, in particular, how greatly the necessities and
luxuries of life can be increased by the domestication of wild escu-
lents; by better distribution of little-known food plants; and by
the amelioration of crops we now grow through breeding them with
wild or little-known relatives.
Few, even among those who have given special attention to
agricultural crops, have a proper conception of the number that
might be grown. De Candolle, one of the few men of science who
have made a systematic study of domesticated plants, and whose
*' Origin of Cultivated Plants" has long been sanctioned by science
as authoritative, is much to blame for the current misconception
as to the number of plants under cultivation. By conveying the
idea that his book covers the whole field, De Candolle prepared
the ground for a fine crop of misunderstandings. Humboldt
stated in 1807 that, " The origin, the first home of the plants most
useful to man, and which have accompanied him from the remotest
epochs, is a secret as impenetrable as the dwelling of all our domesti-
cated animals/ '
De Candolle set out to disprove Humboldt. He assorted culti-
vated plants in 247 species and ascertained very accurately the
histories of 244 out of the total number. De Candolle's thorough-
ness, patience, judgment, affluence of knowledge, clear logic and
felicity of expression, make his book so trustworthy and valuable
in most particulars, that we have accepted it as the final word in
all particulars, overlooking his faulty enumeration and forgetting
that most of his material was gathered more than a half century
My first task is to establish the fact that the number of plants
now cultivated for food the world over is not appreciated in either
science or practice. Neither are botanists nor agriculturists
seemingly well aware of the number of edible plants now domes-
ticated which are in times of stress used in various parts of the
world for food, many of which can well be grown for food. Your
attention must be called to the number of these.
NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 53
Inspiration for this discussion of the undeveloped food resources
of the plant-kingdom came to the speaker from the use of notes left
at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station by the first
director of the station, the late Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant, during his
active life a member of this Society, who gave much time to the
study of economic botany. His pen contributions on cultivated
plants in agricultural and botanical magazines cover thirty years
and number many titles. In addition, the unpublished material
just mentioned, under the heading "Edible Plants of the World"
takes up over 1,600 typewritten pages. During his life, Dr.
Sturtevant was in the full tide of American science, but I am sure
could he have lived to publish the great treatise which he had
planned on edible plants, and upon which he worked for twenty
years, we should give him much higher rank with giants of science,
and that his book would now be the magnum opus of economic
De Candolle, as we have seen, includes but 247 cultivated species
in his work. This is approximately the number generally thought
to minister to the alimentary wants of man. Sturtevant, in his
notes on edible plants, enumerates 1,113 domesticated species now
cultivated, and a total of 4,447 species, some part or parts of which
are edible. Following De Candolle, Sturtevant made use of botany,
archeology, paleontology, history and philology in obtaining his
data. He searched the literature of the world from the earliest
records in Egyptian, Chinese and Phoenician until the time of his
death to make a complete record of the edible plants of the world.
Sturtevant's were the species, too, of a generation ago, many of
which have since been divided twice, thrice, or oftener by later
botanists. It is said that no food plant of established field culture
has ever gone out of cultivation, an approximate truth, at least,
from which we may presume that the number of cultivated plants
is not smaller than the numbers given from our author's notes.
In leaving this phase of my subject, I can not but say, despite
the fulness of Sturtevant's notes, the feeling comes in reading them,
as it does in reading De Candolle, Darwin or whoever has written
on the domestication of plants, that what has so far been found out
is so little in comparison to what we ought to know regarding the
modification of cultivated plants by man, that our present knowl-
edge but makes more apparent the dire poverty of our information.
54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Passing now to a more direct discussion of the subject in hand, I
have to say that I have chosen to discuss three general means of
developing the latent possibilities in the plant-kingdom for agri-
culture. It may help to hold your attention if I discuss these in
order of their importance — the most important last. They are:
First, the domestication of the native plants of any region. Second,
better distribution of plants now cultivated. Third, the utilization
of hybridization to bring into being new types of plants better suited
to cultivation and to the uses of man.
In the matter of domesticating plants let us glance hastily at
what has and what can be done in our own country. In De
Candolle's treatise we make but a poor showing, indeed. Out of
his 247 cultivated species but 45 are accredited to the New "World,
and but three of these — the pumpkin, Jerusalem artichoke and
persimmon — come from North America. To these three, Sturte-
vant adds about thirty. The poor showing made by our continent
in furnishing food plants, it must be made plain, is not due to origi-
nal inferiority. The number would be vastly greater, as Asa Gray
long ago pointed out, had civilization begun in this rather than in
the Old World. It is probable, indeed, that the numbers would
be approximately equal if civilization had begun as early in the
Western as in the Eastern Hemisphere.
What are some of these plants that Gray and other botanists
have so often told us might have been and may yet profitably be
domesticated? The list is far too long to catalogue, but you will
permit me time for a few examples, choosing those that are still
worth domesticating for some special purpose or environment.
Fruits give us most examples.
Wild fruits abound in North America. The continent is a
natural orchard. More than 200 species of tree, bush, vine and
small fruits were commonly used by the aborigines for food, not
counting nuts, those occasionally used, and numerous rarities.
In its plums, grapes, raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, cran-
berries and gooseberries North America has already given the
world a great variety of new fruits. There are now under cultiva-
tion 11 American species of plums, of which there are 433 pure-
bred and 155 hybrid varieties; 15 species of American grapes with
404 pure and 790 hybrid varieties; 4 species of raspberries with 280
NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 00
varieties; 6 species of blackberries with 86 varieties; 5 species of
dewberries with 23 varieties; 2 species of cranberries with 60
varieties and 2 gooseberries with 35 varieties. Here are 45 species
of American fruits with 2,226 varieties, domesticated within ap-
proximately a half century. De Candolle named none of them.
The final note of exultation at this really magnificent achievement
of American horticulture would typically be uttered in a boast
as to the number of millions of dollars these fruits bring fruit-
growers each year, but science is not sordid and has not made the
What more can be done? The possibilities of the fruits named
have by no means been exhausted. The fruit of the wild plum,
Prunus maritima, an inhabitant of sea-beaches and dunes from
Maine to the Carolinas, is a common article of trade in the region
in which it grows, but notwithstanding the fact that it readily
breaks into innumerable forms and is a most promising subject
under hybridization, practically nothing has yet been done toward
domesticating it. Few plants grow under such varied conditions
as our wild grapes. Not all have been brought under subjugation,
though nearly all have horticultural possibilities. It is certain
that some grape can be grown in every agricultural region of the
United States. The blueberry and huckleberry, finest of fruits,
and now the most valuable American wild fruits, the crops bringing
several millions of dollars annually, are not yet domesticated.
Coville has demonstrated that the blueberry can be cultivated-
Some time we should have numerous varieties of the several
blueberries and huckleberries to enrich pine plains, mountain
tracts, swamps and waste lands that otherwise are all but wort hi'
A >core or more native species of gooseberries and currants can be
domesticated and should some time extend the culture of tl
fruits from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Circle. There are
many forms of juneberries widely distributed in the United -
and Canada, from whieh several varieties are now cultivated. The
elderberry is represented by a dozen or more cultivated varieties,
one of whieh, brought to my attention the past BCaSQQ, produced
a half hundred enormous clusters, a single cluster being made up
of 2,208 berries, each a third of an inch in diameter.
These are but a few of the fruits — others whieh can Only be
56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
named are: the anonas and their kin from Florida; the native
crabapples and thorn-apples; the wine-berry, the buffalo-berry
and several wild cherries; the cloud-berry prized in Labrador;
the crow-berry of cold and Arctic America; the high-bush cran-
berry; native mulberries; opuntias and other cacti for the deserts;
the paw-paw, the persimmon, and the well-known and much-used
salal and salmon berries of the west and north.
The pecan, the chestnut and the hickory-nut are the only native
nuts domesticated, but some time forest and waste places can be
planted not only to the nuts named, but to improved varieties of
acorns, beechnuts, butternuts, filberts, hazels, chinquapins and
nutpines, to utilize waste lands, to diversify diet and to furnish
articles of food that can be shipped long distances and be kept
from year to year. The fad of today which substitutes nuts for
meat may become a necessity tomorrow. Meanwhile it is interest-
ing to note that the pecan has become within a few decades so
important a crop that optimistic growers predict in another half
century that pecan groves will be second only to the cottonfields
in the south. A bulletin from the United States Department of
Agriculture describes 67 varieties, of which more than a million
and a half trees have been planted.
It is doubtful whether we are to change general agriculture much
by the domestication at this late date of new native grains, though
many may well be introduced from other regions and wonderful
improvement through plant-breeding is, as all know, now taking
place. Raw material exists in America for domestication, but it
is not probable that we shall ever use it extensively.
There are, however, a number of native vegetables worth cul-
tivating. The native beans and teparies in the semi-arid and sub-
tropical southwest to which Freeman, of the Arizona station, has
called attention, grown perhaps for thousands of years by the
aborigines, seem likely to prove timely crops for the dry-farmers
of the southwest. Professor Freeman has isolated 70 distinct
types of these beans and teparies, suggesting that many horti-
cultural sorts may be developed from his foundation stock. The
ground-nut, Apios tuberosa, furnished food for the French at Port
Royal in 1613 and the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620, and as a crop
for forests might again be used. There are a score or more species
NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 57
of Physalis, or ground cherries, native to North America, several
of which are promising vegetables and have been more or less used
by pioneers. Solanwn nigrum, the nightshade, a cosmopolite
of America and Europe, recently much advertised under several
misleading names, and its congener, Solatium triflorum, both really
wild tomatoes, are worthy of cultivation and in fact are readily
yielding to improvement. Amaranthus retroflexus, one of the
common pigweeds of gardens, according to Watson, is cultivated
for its seeds by the Arizona Indians. In China and Japan the
corms or tubers of a species of Sagittaria are commonly sold for
food. There are several American species, one of which at least
was used wherever found by the Indians, and under the name
arrowhead, swan potato and swamp potato has given welcome
sustenance to pioneers. Our native lotus, a species of Nelumbo,
was much prized by the aborigines, seeds, roots and stalks being
eaten. Sagittaria and Nelumbo furnish starting points for valuable
food plants for countless numbers of acres of water-covered marshes
when the need to utilize these now waste places becomes pressing.
The temptation is strong to continue this discussion of the
domestication of native plants, but time demands that I pa>- to B
consideration of the second potential of an increased diet, that of
better distribution of the world's food-producing plants.
Beginning with the discovery of the New World, botanical and
agricultural explorations have been carried on with zeal, and food
plants have been interchanged freely between newly discovered
lands and older civilizations. Yet in these centuries the food-plant
floras of races have been changed but little. Quite too often a crop
is found to be the monopoly of a race or nation irrespective of soil
and climate, factors which ought to import a cultivated Mora. It
would seem that agriculturists would quickly adopt food plants
grown elsewhere of which the advantage is evident, and be thereby
diverted from the cultivation of poorer crops in their own country.
Yet the introduction of foreign plants is usually arrested, if not
actually opposed by the timidity of agriculture, and it has been
most difficult to introduce new crops into old regions. Thlfl con-
vation on the part of those wli<> grow the food plants of the coun-
try is due to a universal dislike in the animal kingdom, most
strongly developed in the human family, to eating unfamiliar food-
" v MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
But travel is making all people less and less fastidious as to foods,
as the numerous new foreign dishes in daily use in our own homes
give evidence. Only savages and those who must struggle for
sufficient food to sustain life line on one or a few foods.
Let us hastily run over a few foreign plants that may well receive
more attention in America, naming fruits first as of most interest
to this audience. Japanese pliuns and persimmons came to
America in the medieval days of horticultural progress, and interest
in them seems to have ceased. We need new importations of the
many types not yet in the country. The fig is an ancient immi-
grant, but many desirable relatives were left behind. Date cul-
ture is now a most promising infant industry in the southwest.
The Chinese jujube promises to be one of the most valuable of the
many plants recently introduced into this country. The jujube
is a hardy tree which has been cultivated in China for more than
4,000 years, being one of the five principal fruits of the new republic.
There are hundreds of varieties differing in flavor and sizes, some
growing less than an inch in length and others equaling the size of
a hen's egg. One variety is seedless. Some kinds are eaten fresh,
some are stewed.
Among the newest of the new on probation, but all clamoring
for recognition, are the avocada from tropical America; the feijoa
from Brazil; a dozen or more annonaceous fruits from the tropics,
of which the cherimoya seems now to be most prominent ; an edible
Osage orange from Central China; the roselle. an annual from the
Old World tropics, valuable for its fruit, stalks and seed. Several
species of Berberis supply a refreshing fruit in northern Asia and
might add variety to the rather spare fruit diet of the colder parts
of this continent. Beside these are innumerable new citrus fruits,
the number of species and varieties of which seem to be legion —
the speaker is neither able to enumerate them not to tell where they
begin or where they leave off. Swingle's splendid work with this
genus is one of the most notable contributions to horticulture in
The mango has long been grown in Florida, but interest in mangos
has recently been renewed through the introduction of choice
Indian varieties. Poponoe describes 312 varieties of mangos
grown in various parts of the world, of which as yet I judge there
NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 59
are but few in America, though they are not difficult to grow in
Florida, California or in our insular possessions. A quotation from
Fairchild suggests the possible future of the mango in America.
" The mango is one of the really great fruits of the world ....
There are probably more varieties of mangos than there are of
peaches. I have heard of one collection of five hundred different
sorts in India. There are exquisitely flavored varieties no larger
than a plum, and there are delicious sorts, the fruits of which are
six pounds in weight. These fine varieties, practically as free from
fiber as a freestone peach, can be eaten with a spoon as easily as a
canteloupe. Trainloads of these are shipped from the mango-
growing centers of India and distributed in the densely peopled
cities of that great semi-tropical empire."
No one can read Bayard Taylor's fervent praise of the durian
and the mangosteen and not desire to grow these fruits in America.
He says of the durian: — "Of all fruits, at first the most intoler-
able; but said, by those who have smothered their prejudices, to
be of all fruits, at last, the most indispensable. When it is brought
to you at first, you clamor till it is removed; if there are durians
in the next room to you, you can not sleep. Chloride of lime and
disinfectants seem to be its necessary remedy. To eat it seems to
be a sacrifice of self-respect; but, endure it for a while, with closed
nostrils, taste it once or twice, and you will cry for durians thence-
forth, even — I blush to write it — even before the gloriou>
Listen to his laudation of the "glorious mangosteen."
"Beautiful to sight, smell and taste, it hangs among it- glossj
leaves the prince of fruits. Cut through the shaded green and
purple of the rind, and lift the upper half as if it were the cover of
a dish, and the pulp of half-transparent, creamy whiteness stands
in segments like an orange, but rimmed with darkest crimson where
the rind was cut. It looks too beautiful to cat ; but how the ran
st essence of the tropics seems to dwell in it as it melts to
your delightful taste."
One need not titillate the palate to enjoy >nch fruit, (an they
be so delectable? Surely we can find a place for them somewhere
60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Let us turn to a few examples of promising vegetable and farm
crops of foreign countries not yet cultivated in the United States.
Only those which give most emphasis to the present paper can be
All know that rice furnishes the chief food of China, but few are
aware that sorghum is as important a crop in Asia as rice and that
it is the chief food of a large part of Africa. In China not only
are the stalks of sorghum used, but bread is made from the seeds.
In parts of India, sorghum is the staff of life. The Zulu Kaffirs
five on the stalks, which are chewed and sucked, and Livingstone
the people grow fat thereon." The several species of yams
constitute one of the cheapest and most widely distributed food
plants in the world, yet the yam is little grown in America. Several
genera of Aroideae, as Caladium, Alocasia, Colocagia, and Arum,
each with innumerable varieties, furnish taro, arrowroot, ape and
other more or less familiar food to the South Sea islanders. In a
bulletin from the L'nited States Department of Agriculture, under
the title. "Promising Root Crops for the South," these Aroids,
called under their native names of yautias, taros. and dasheens
are recommended as most valuable wet-land root crops for the
South Atlantic and Gulf States. Of the place of the cocoanut in
the world's economy I need not speak. Varieties of Maranta
were grown in Mississippi and Georgia in 1549, but disappeared.
From one of the several species of this genus comes the arrowroot
of commerce. Arrowroot is a favorite food of the Fijis and
their neighbors, as well as of the inhabitants of Cape Colony, Xatal,
and Queensland. May not arrowroot some time be produced
profitably in America": The banana has been on our tables less
than a generation, yet it is now one of the commonest foods.
There are several species and many varieties yet to be introduced
into the tropics of America. The leaves and buds of several agaves
furnish an abundant and a very palatable food to our southern
neighbors. From plants of the large genus Manihot of equatorial
regions, tapioca is made under conditions which could be greatly
improved. As cassava, one of these manihots is already important
in the L'nited States and may some time compete with corn and
wheat in the food supply of the country.
To quench the thirst of the teeming millions in time to come
NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY Gl
there may be a multiplicity of beverages as well as of foods to
mitigate hunger. In Arabia several millions of people drink khat,
while in southern South America as many more millions allay their
thirst with mate. Mate, according to Fairchild, can be produced
at but a fraction of the cost of tea and supplies the same alkaloid
in a more easily soluble form. Both contain thein, the active
principle in "the cups that cheer but not inebriate." Sturtevant
names twelve plants the leaves of which are used in different parts
of the world to adulterate or in place of tea. We have but just
acquired the use of cocoa and chocolate from the natives of our
American tropics and of cocacola from the negroes of Africa, and
it is not unlikely that we shall find other similar stimulants. For
drinkers of more ardent beverages, if King Alcohol continues to
reign, there is an abundance, the diversity and cheapness of which
probably will ever as now be regulated by taste and taxes.
Time prevents my naming other valuable foreign plants that
deserve to be tried in our agriculture. It is fortunate for American
farming that men from the United States Department of Agricul-
ture are now searching everywhere for new material. Saul went
in search of asses and came back with a crown. So these men sent
to foreign countries for material, possibly commonplace enough,
are bringing back treasures the value of which in many cases will
be incalculable. Introduction of seeds and plants for the nation
is work to which the institutions represented here should lend aid
in every way possible.
The last of the three means of developing plants for food, and
as I believe the most important, is by using either foreign species
or wild native species to hybridize with established crop-plants.
# It needs but a brief statement of what has been accomplished in
increasing hardiness, productiveness, disease resistance, adapta-
bility to soil, and other essentials of standard crop-plants, to show
that through hybridisation of related species we have probably
the best means of augmenting our diet. Let us glance at a few-
recent accomplishments of hybridization, noting chiefly results
with horticultural plants.
Downing in L872 described 286 varieties of 1 speciei of plum-.
In the 40 years that have elapsed the number has increased to
1,037 varieties representing 16 Bpeciea Now- the significant thing
62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
is that whereas Downing' s plums were pure-bred species, 155 of the
present cultivated plum flora are hybrids between species. Downing
could recommend plums for only a few favored regions. Some kind
of plum can be grown now in every agricultural region in North
America. Even more remarkable is the part hybrids have played
in the evolution of American grapes. At the beginning of the
nineteenth century, the grape could not be called a cultivated crop
on this continent. Now there are 16 species and 1,194 varieties,
the most significant fact being that 790 or three-fourths of the
total number are hybrids. The grape through hybridization has
become one of the commonest cultivated plants. The genus
ltubus promises to attract and distract horticulturists next. As
nearly as I can make out there are about 60 species of Rubus in
North America. In the two completed parts of Focke's " Species
Ruborum," 273 species are described. Raspberries, blackberries,
dewberries and their like hybridize freely and we already have in
the loganberry, the purple-cane raspberry, the wineberry and in
the blackberry-dewberry crosses valuable fruits. If any consider-
able number of Focke's several hundred species can be similarly
mixed and amalgamated, the genus Rubus will be one of the most
valuable groups of fruits.
The speaker a few years ago made a study of cultivated cherries.
When the work began a few years ago about a score of species were
in sight. Koehne, a recent botanical monographer of the sub-
genus Cerasus, to which our edible cherries belong, describes 119
species, many of them but recently collected by Wilson in Asia.
There are enough hybrids between species to indicate that culti-
vated cherries will some time be diversified as plums and with
quite as much advantage to the fruit.
Webber's and Swingle's work in breeding hardy citrus fruits;
blight-resisting pears as a result of crossing Pyrus communis and
Pyrus sinensis; Burbank's spectacular hybrid creations; the
diversity of types of tomatoes, potatoes, egg-plant, peppers, beans,
cucurbits and other vegetables, not to mention roses, chrysanthe-
mums, orchids and innumerable flowers, suggest the possibilities
of hybridization. We have not done what lies within our reach
in crossing cereals — corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, the last
especially, remain yet to be touched by the magic wand of hybridi-
NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 63
zation. Hybrid walnuts, chestnuts, hickories, and oaks, promise
a wonderful improvement in nuts.
Truth is we do not know how much nor what material we have
to work with in many of the groups of plants I have named, lending
color to the saying that the plants with which man has most to do
and which render him greatest service are those which botanists
know least. This brings me to the last division of my subject.
Nothing is more certain than that we are at the beginning of a
most fertile period in the introduction of new and the improvement
of old food-plants. Yet agricultural institutions are most illy
prepared to take part in the movement. " Art is long and time is
fleeting," can be said of no human effort more truly than of the
improvement of plants, and haste should be made for better prepara-
tion. Looking over the material that is usable in agricultural
institutions, it seems that we are sadly lacking in the wherewithal
upon which to begin. It is indispensable for effective work that
we have an abundance of material and that we know well the
plants with which we are to work.
How may the material be had? We are fortunate in the United
States in having the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction
of the United States Department of Agriculture for the importa-
tion of foreign plants. This office has effective machinery for the
work. It maintains agricultural explorers in foreign countries.
It is in direct contact with the agricultural institutions of other
countries as well as with plant-collectors, explorers, consuls,
officers of other countries, and missionaries. Through tli
agents it can reach the uttermost parts of the world. Morevoer,
it has trained men to identify, to inventory, to propagate and to
distribute foreign plants. This office can better meet quarantine
regulations than can private experimenters or state institutions.
All interested in foreign plants ought to work in cooperation with
the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
To be used advantageously material must be near at hand.
This means that there must be botanic gardens. There should be
in every distinct agricultural region of the country | garden \vli<
may be found the food plants of the world suitable for the region.
It is Strange that in the lavish expenditure of state and federal
64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
rooney in the agricultural institutions of the land, that so little has
been done to establish and maintain comprehensive plantations of
economic plants. Now that the amelioration of plants is a part of
the work of agricultural colleges and stations it would seem that
the establishment of such gardens is imperative. True, there are
botanic gardens, but the museum idea is dominant in most of them
— they contain the curiosities of the vegetable kingdom, or they
show the ornamental and beautiful, or they are used for purposes
of instruction. We need agricultural gardens in which agricultural
plants are dominant rather than recessive.
There is another difficulty quite as detrimental to progress as
inability to obtain material. It is the lack of trustworthy informa-
tion in regard to economic plants. Quite as necessary as agricul-
tural gardens is an agricultural botany. In this botany must be
set forth, besides descriptions of species, the habitat, the migrations,
the geographical relations to other plants, the changes that have
occurred, how the plant is affected by man-given environment, and
all similar data. Physiological facts regarding germination,
leafing, flowering and fruiting must be given. The production of
such a book is a consummation devoutly to be wished.
Lastly, material and books do not create. The man has not
been lost sight of, but I should have to set forth his temper and
training too hurriedly even if I could properly conceive them. But
from the beginning to the end of this new shaping of food crops,
the individual man trained for the work will be dominant. The
work to be done, however, is so vast that we can not make an
appreciable showing unless the task be divided among a great
number of workers. Those who will do most are such as can con-
centrate on particular problems the sifted experience and knowl-
edge of the world. Many may sow, but only the strong can garner.
In conclusion, I must end as I began by calling attention to the
great probability of a near-at-hand deficiency of food. I must
again urge the importance of making use of every means of increas-
ing the supply. I have tried to call attention to the desirability of
growing a greater number of food-plants as one of the means. Not
to attempt to develop and utilize to its highest efficiency the vast
wealth of material in the plant-kingdom for the world's food is im-
providence and is a reckless ignoring of splendid opportunities to in-
crease the number of food-crops and thereby the world's food supply.
By Bertrand H. Farr, Wyomissing, Pa.
Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, February 16,
I remember the first Peony I ever saw. It was the first year
when father took us west, and I was six years old. It grew in my
aunt's garden. It wasn't a real Peony, it was just a "Piney,' -
one of those old-fashioned red ones that grew in all old ladies'
gardens, but I thought it was very beautiful. I told her if she would
give me a bloom, I would drive her cow home from the pasture that
night. The arrangement was mutually satisfactory, and after
further negotiations she agreed that if I would drive the cow home
for one week, she would give me a "Piney toe," and so I came into
possession of my first Peony.
More than 25 years elapsed before I ow r ned another Peony, but
when in 1897 I came to Wyomissing, where I could have a real
garden, one of the first things I determined was to have a complete
collection of Peonies, "a white one, a red one and a pink one."
Then I discovered that Ellwanger & Barry had a great collection
as many as twenty kinds. After I had gotten these, one of Lo-
rn oine's catalogues fell into my hands and, after some hesitation
over the extravagance, I made the plunge. I sent to him my first
foreign order in 1901. Only then did I realize 1 what was before
me, but it was too late. The Peony bug had gotten me, as it has
gotten many others, and will get you too if it once u r cts fairly hold
of you. Orders from Dessert and others soon followed. Then
from Kerway in England.
There must have been a sort of Peony epidemic prevalent at that
time, for 1 learned afterwards that a number of those who today
arc well known in the IVony world, were similarly affected at about
the same time in th< manner, the two Petersons, Shaylor,
McKiss ek, Ward, John Good, Betcher and others. In the Thur-
66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
low ranks, where it had partly subsided (Mr. Thurlow having
recently sold his collection), there was a fresh outbreak of the craze.
I was not then in touch with these people, but I had heard of a
Peony Society. I came home, packed my grip and started to
Boston to see the Peony Show, and learn something about Peonies.
Ever since then Boston has seemed to me the "Hub" in Peony
matters, as it used to be for me in things musical, for here in this
hall I got my first real inspiration. I stopped off at Cottage
Gardens to see Mr. Ward, President of the Peonv Societv. He
was busy collecting flowers for the show, noting new things coming
into bloom for the first time, identifying things untrue, etc., and
trying his best to be polite to me, all at once. In the light of later
experience, I can appreciate his position, but neither he nor I sus-
pected then that I was to be his successor.
I have brought with me a photograph of that Peony Show in
1906, that I took myself. Over on one table is a display of Hollis'
new seedlings. Several of them, Paradise, Goliath, Bunker Hill,
and 'Welcome Guest received certificates of merit. He also showed
a fine lot of Japanese types, then little thought of, but since these
have become very popular. Among these especially were Glory,
Bobby Bee, and Attraction. Mr. Shaylor carried off the honors,
as he has done so many times since, with his splendid collection.
Mr. McKissock was there with his fine collection of novelties from
France. Of course the Thurlows were represented there, and in the
center of the room stood a massive great vase of Richardson's
Rubra Superba, which carried off the first prize. Here I first met
the Rev. C. S. Harrison, "Evangelist of the Peony," for he, more
than anyone else has preached the gospel of the Peony throughout
the great northwest. Here I met our Mr. Fewkes, whom all of us
of the Peony Society have come to hold in such sincere regard. I
visited T. C. Thurlow, the first of the great Peony enthusiasts in
Xew England, at his delightful and hospitable home. I visited
James McKissock, and his beautiful collection at West Newton.
Up at "Wellesley Hills I found Mr. Shaylor among his Peonies.
In one corner, carefully screened under a tent from the hot sun,
we came to the climax of our visit, when he said to us, "There,
gentlemen, is the celebrated Lady Alexandra Duff." He was
doomed to disappointment, for it turned out at the show to be
THE PEONY 67
identical with Grandiflora Nivea Plena. Others had had similar
disappointments, for Lady Duff turned out to be first James Kelway,
then Mrs. Gwyn Lewis, and a host of other things, even to Festiva
Maxima, till Mr. Shaylor in disgust, pronounced the Lady a myth,
using a famous quotation, "There ain't no such thing." Mr.
Kelway finally got so stirred up over the storm of criticism from
his angry patrons in this country, that some years later he sent to
several of us what he declared was a really truly Lady Duff, ac-
companied by photographs from his own garden, showing the
original plant in flower. I met many others there, whom for lack
of time I cannot mention, but I formed friendships with them that
have endured to this day. Some of them have passed away, but
the greatest thing I learned was that Peony people as a class are
mighty fine people. They are true blue. For they grow Peonies,
not as a commercial proposition, but because they really love the
flower, and find in it a fascination that cannot be resisted.
The Peony is a true aristocrat of the hardy garden. I do not
apply this as a mere phrase, for it is true in every sense, both as to
its lineage and its associations. In China it is said that the Tree
Peony has been their chief pride and glory for nearly 1500 years,
a theme for their poets and painters, and prized by their emperors
for the beauty and fragrance of its flowers; and for more than
a thousand years a record of the characters, qualities, and parentage
of the new varieties raised from seed has been kept. In their
gardens the Tree Peony is known as the " King of Flowers," and
the herbaceous Peony as the "King's Ministers." It is descended
from Paeonia albiflora, a native of Siberia. Knowing this, I can
well understand why it thrives so luxuriantly in the rich alluvial
soil of our western states, and why it is the flower for the great
Northwest, enduring, as it does, the most intense cold without
injury. This Asiatic Peony must not be confused with the old-
fashioned, early flowering red Peony of our grandmothers' gardens,
which belongs to an entirely distinct species, officinalis, a native of
Europe, the early history of which is intricately woven with a haze
of superstition, allegory, and myth. Its magical charm- wore
supposed to ward off witchcraft, and the name Peony is derived
from a Dr. Peon, who used its r medicine.
The modern Chinensis Peony lias only been known in Europe a
68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
little more than half a century. It was under the care of M.
Jacques, gardener to King Louis Philippe, that one of the first
collections was formed, and some of the first of the fine varieties of
today originated. M. Jacques' collection was inherited by his
nephew, M. Victor Verdier, who raised a number of fine seedlings.
The collection of the Comte de Cussy, an amateur collector, was
inherited by M. Calot, of Douai, who continued to raise seedlings
till 1872, when his collection passed into the hands of M. Crousse,
of Nancy, who made careful selections from the Calot seedlings
and sent them out annually until 1879. From 1882 until 1899,
Crousse sent out seedlings of his own raising. The Calot-Crousse
varieties are noted for their uniform high quality, raising the
standard of excellence to a height that has never been surpassed,
unless it be by the splendid varieties introduced in recent years by
that greatest of all the world's hybridizers, Victor Lemoine, whose
establishment at Nancy is at Crousse's old place. All the Lemoine
varieties are exquisitely beautiful, but most of them so rare, they
are but little known outside of the larger collections.
Another famous French collector of Peonies, contemporary with
Calot and Crousse, was M. Mechin, also an enthusiastic amateur,
whose grandson, M. A. Dessert, of Chenonceaux, succeeds him,
and is considered today the greatest living authority on Peonies.
Among his most recent introductions may be found some of the
most beautiful additions to the many fine varieties for which we
are indebted to the French specialists. Recently a number of fine
new varieties, which are yet but little known in this country, have
been originated in France by Riviere, Paillet, Brochet and others.
To these must be added the beautiful varieties raised by James
Kelway, of England, who began his work on the Peony in 1864,
and twenty years later catalogued forty-one new varieties of his
Among those who have been most prominent in the introductions
of new Peonies in America which equal those of the finest French
introductions, was John Richardson, of Dorchester, Massachusetts.
Robert T. Jackson in his paper published in the Transactions of the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society for 1904, "John Richardson,
His House and Garden" writes: "Mr. Richardson had a perfect
passion for horticulture, and every plant in his garden that he loved
THE PEONY 69
so well was a real personality to him. A walk with him about the
garden meant a lingering at every step to consider the merits, the
history, or some cultural point in regard to the plants that were as
his children. When nearly ninety, he planted Peony seeds just
the same as in his earlier years, and some of his posthumous seed-
lings are among his best." His varieties are all of unusual merit.
Milton Hill and Paul Fisher are among the best; Walter Faxon
stands alone, unapproached by any other Peony in its color, the
nearest true deep pink; while Rubra Superba, crimson, and Grandi-
flora, soft shell-pink, still stand at the head, as the best and very
latest of these colors to bloom. H. A. Terry, of Crescent, Iowa,
early became interested in Peonies, and produced many varieties,
the best probably being Grover Cleveland, Etta, Emma, Princess
Ellen, Euphemia, and Stephanie. Writing in 1904 he says, "I
am now in my eightieth year, and do not know how long I shall
continue to grow Peonies, but I want to be surrounded by them as
long as I live. They are like my children, very dear to me."
It was in Boston, in 1906, that I first met Mr. Hollis and saw his
beautiful blooms on exhibition. I thought them fine then, and in
my garden since they have not disappointed me. He was a genial,
kindly gentleman, with means and leisure to devote his time to
his favorites. I visited him in 1910 when his Peonies were in bloom.
Although stricken then with a fatal illness, unable to walk alone,
he sat in the little summer-house overlooking his Peonies, happy
in the sight of them, still able to talk with enthusiasm about his
treasures and call them by name. Among his many fine ones are
Paradise, Welcome Guest, Maude L. Richardson, Standard Bearer,
George Washington, Bunker Hill, and Tragedie. Mention must
also be made of his Japanese types, of which he raised a Dumber
which are distinct and fine.
Mrs. Sarah A. Pleas, now living in Whittier, California at the
advanced age of over 83 years, is as actively interested in Peonies
as when at her home in Spiceland, Indiana, she raised and intro-
duced Opal, Elwood Pleas, and her now famous Jubilee, which
carried off highest honors at the National Peony Show in Phila-
delphia last year. A. M. Brand, of Faribault. Minnesota, for
many yean has been giving his attention to the raising of seedling
Peonies. His varieties are now attracting a great deal of attention :
70 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
his Martha Bullock, best known, was one of the prominent features
in the show last year. Among his many new ones I would mention
Marv Brand, Richard Carvel, and Francis Willard. E. J. Shavlor
of Wellesley Hills, is devoting his later years to raising new varie-
ties, and has already given us Georgiana Shaylor, Mary Woodbury
Shavlor, Wilton Lockwood, and a number of others which have
received certificates of merit at your shows here. We must not
forget to mention Cherry Hill by Thurlow of West Newbury, and
Karl Rosenfield, by Rosenfield of Omaha, Nebraska, as being two
American varieties of exceptional merit. Some of you may re-
member the splendid exhibit of some fifty new unnamed seedlings
made here two years ago by Prof. A. P. Saunders of Clinton, New
York. You will want to keep an eye on his work, for possibly one
of these days the long sought yellow Peony may appear in his
garden, for he is after it, apparently on the right track, and I
shouldn't wonder if he succeeds.
It will be seen, therefore, that nearly all of our modern Peonies
are of comparatively recent introduction, and I am greatly im-
pressed by the fact that practically all of the fine Peonies we have
today have come to us through that remarkable group in France,
Calot, Crousse, Lemoine, and Dessert, most of them having a
family relationship, and the few enthusiasts in America, just
mentioned, who have taken up the growing of Peonies because they
found it intensely fascinating; for the Peony does not attract the
commercial grower. In its propagation there is no easy, royal road
to quick results. It takes from four to six years before blooms
may be had from seed, and if, perchance, one seedling in a thousand
has sufficient merit and distinction to justify its introduction as a
new variety, it takes many more years to raise by the slow process
of division, sufficient stock to be able to offer it to the trade. That
is why the new varieties are so expensive; unlike a new Rose or
Carnation, which in a few months can be increased to an unlimited
supply through cuttings. It takes years to acquire a few plants
from a Peonv, and even todav, some of the old varieties are still
The professional grower cannot afford to wait so long for results.
So most of the work with the Peony has been done by those whose
love for the flowers themselves, and the fascination of watching
THE PEONY 71
them grow, has been their chief incentive. Here is an example of
your real Peony lover: Two or three years ago I visited your Mr.
Fewkes whom all of us Peony people have come to regard in such
high esteem. After we had enjoyed the Peonies in his garden we
went inside, where in a vase he had three of the most wonderful
blooms I have ever seen. They were Lemoine's La Lorraine and
Dessert's Therese and Rosa Bonheur. As we stood admiring them
he remarked, " Do you know? it almost seems to me as if it is worth
a year of a man's lifetime, just to be permitted to look upon a
thing so beautiful!" Truly the Peony is an aristocrat.
The Chinensis Peony (albiflora), in its original or wild state,
was a single white flower, and the various stages of its transition
from its original single type to the perfect double flower, forms the
basis of the classification by the American Peony Society of the
modern Peony in its various forms as follows : —
Single. Those with a single row of wide guard petals, and a
center of yellow pollen-bearing stamens.
Semi-double. Those with several rows of wide petals, and a
center of stamens and partially transformed petaloids.
Japanese. These have wide guards the same as the singles,
but with the stamens and anthers greatly enlarged into narrow,
thick petaloids of various colors, tipped with vestiges of yellow;
the anthers are without pollen.
Anemone. A step farther in the process of doubling, with the
stamens all transformed into short, narrow petals, forming a round
cushion in the center of the flower.
Bomb. The next step, in which all the center petals are uni-
formly wide, approaching the guards, but distinctly differentiated
from them, forming a globe-shaped center without collar or crown.
Crown. In this type wide petals are developed in the center of
the flower, forming a high crown, with the narrow short petals
forming a ring or collar around it. Often the crown and guards
are of one color, and the collar another, <>r of a lighter shade.
SEMI-ROSE. Flowers in which the petals are all uniformly wide.
72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
but are loosely built, with a few pollen-bearing stamens visible,
or nearly concealed.
Rose. The process of doubling is completed, all stamens fully
transformed into evenly arranged wide petaloids, similar to the
guards, forming a perfect rose-shaped bloom.
Twelve years ago, when I attended my first Peony show here,
Baroness Schroeder was the acknowledged queen. She was
beautiful, and among the most costly, being among the very few
for which as much as five dollars was asked, and it was common talk
then, that the "Peony Boom" had probably reached its height,
and would doubtless soon decline. The Baroness is as beautiful
today, but no longer queen, for many kinds now bring from ten
to fifteen dollars, and twenty-five to thirty dollars is not at all an
uncommon value for a number of varieties, and never were these
rare varieties more sought after than today.
Among the most talked of Peonies today, besides those of the
American growers previously mentioned are first of all Lemoine's
Le Cygne, winner of the first prize for the finest single specimen
bloom, followed closely by Kelway's Glorious. Along with these
should be mentioned Lemoine's Alsace Lorraine, Evangeline,
Enchantresse, La Fee, La France, Mirabeau, Mignon, Mont Blanc,
Sarah Bernhardt, Solange and Prime vere, the nearest approach to
yellow; Dessert's Therese, Francois Rosseau, Mad. De Treyeran,
Rosa Bonheur, Tourangelle, and Mons. Martin Cahuzac, the
darkest of all Peonies. Kelway's James Kelway, Kelway's Queen,
Marchioness of Landsdowne, Miss Salway, Phyllis Kelway, and
Venus are all varieties of rare beauty.
Many of the new introductions are only known by reputation,
for the expensive kinds are often not allowed to come to perfection,
being too frequently divided for the purpose of increasing the stock;
it is only when they are grown in private gardens, or in specimen
collections, where they may remain for at least four years, that real
merits are revealed. Consequently, everywhere, as they develop,
we discover new treasures, and alas, too, some few disappointments.
Among the pleasant surprises in my collections that I had an
opportunity to see in perfection for the first time last year was
Galathee, a wonderfully full, strong growing, beautifully formed,
flesh white, of great size; Philippe Rivoire, dark garnet, of unusual
THE PEONY 73
form, and long keeping qualities; Madam Gaudichau, nearly as
dark, and rivaling Mons. Martin Cahuzac in brilliancy, form, and
habit; Madam Savreau, with its delicate combination of lilac-
white and amber yellow; Jeanne Gaudichau, wonderfully fine in
form and color, and finally Pomponette, with its great, wide-
petalled, incurved globes of clear rose. For the first time last year,
I saw La France and Le Cygne in all their glory, and many others,
because now I have a specimen garden established, where they have
been allowed to grow to maturity.
Passing from novelties and scarce kinds to varieties more plenti-
ful which may be had at a cost within the reach of all, and which
are obtainable in quantities for mass planting, I would recommend
the following list, which comprises varieties that may with certainty
be relied upon to flower freely each year under all conditions, all
having blooms of the highest quality. The list here given in the
various shades covers a period of bloom from earliest to latest in
the order named, and coveres a period of from three to four weeks.
White. Boule de Neige, Festiva Maxima, Mine. Calot,
Duchesse de Nemours, Couronne d'Or, Albatre, Marie Lemoine.
White, Shaded Cream and Yellow. Lutea plenissima, Alba
Sulphurea, Duke of Wellington, Candidissima, Solfatare, Lutea
variegata, Primevere, Princess Maude.
Flesh and Light Pink. Umbellata Rosea (the earliest of all),
Mme. Coste, Mile. Rosseau, Marguerite Gerard, Albert Crousse,
Eugenie Verdier, Venus, Grandiflora, Modele de Perfection.
Deep Pink and Rose. Edulia Superba, Mons. Jules Elie,
General Bertrand, Mme. Forel, Mme. Muyssart, Henry Murger,
Crimson. Adolphe Rosseau, Pierre Dessert, Mine. Mechin,
Bertha, George Washington, Masterpiece, Felix Crousse, Ar-
mandine Mechin, Mareehal Yaillant, Rubra Superba (the latest
blooming Peony of all).
Tricolor. Princess Beatrice, Mme. de Vatry, Alice de Julve-
court, Gloire de Charles Gombault, Philomene, Prolifert tricolor.
The Following is a List of Peonies Espi i ialli won d for
their Unusually Pleasant Fragbani e: Edulia Superba, Comte
de Nanteuil, Carnea Elegans (Gr.)i Lamartine ( lal. . Mme.
Auguste Peltereau, Mine. Geissler, Mme. Thouvenin, Monsieur
74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Barral, Vicomte de Forceville, Zoe Calot, Dorothy Kelway, Kel-
way's Glorious, Splendida, Venus, Bertha, Enfante de Nancy,
Galathee, La Fee, Mme. de Treyeran, Marcelle Dessert, Mont
Blanc (Lemoine), Mireille, Mignon, Primevere.
A Short List of the very best Singles will Include: Albi-
flora The Bride, Pride of Langport, Madeleine Gauthier, Stanley
L'Etincelante, Austin Chamberlain, The Moor.
Special Fine Ones in the Japanese Section are : Attraction,
Flamboyant, Fuyajo, Ama-no-sode, Margaret Atwood, King of
England, Tora-no-Maki, Lemon Queen, Cathedral, Apple Blossom.
Succession of Bloom.
By including the various early-flowering species, hybrids and Tree
Peonies in one's collection, the blooming season may be extended
over a period of fully two months. The Tree Peonies bloom quite
a month ahead of the Chinensis, beginning early in May. As
they do not die to the ground each year, they form in time woody
shrubs four to five feet in height, their immense strikingly beautiful
blooms sometimes a foot in diameter; they are a wonderful sight.
There are color schemes among them never found in the herbaceous
section, brilliant scarlets, dark maroons and rich wine colors, deli-
cate blush, pure pink and art shades of mauve and violet. Most
of the varieties introduced by the European growers are full-double,
while a large number of the Japanese sorts are semi-double and
single, with a large cushion of thick golden stamens in the center,
which produces a beautiful effect. The Tree Peonies as shown
here on the screen were grown in Professor C. S. Sargent's garden
at Brookline, mostly from seeds of the Japanese sorts. Seeds
should be sown immediately after they ripen, either in the open
ground protected by a slight covering, or in boxes placed in a cold
frame. The young plants will appear the following spring, and
will produce varieties equal in every way to the named kinds.
Peony Lutea, a deep golden yellow T single Tree Peony was dis-
covered a few years ago in the Mountains of Yunnan by the Abbe
Delavay. Crosses from this were made by Lemoine with other
Tree Peonies. One of them, La Lorraine, was exhibited by me at
THE PEONY 75
the American Peony Show in Philadelphia last June, and was
given a special Award of Merit. Its blooms, six inches in diameter,
are fully double and are a deep yellow. A new Lutea hybrid soon
to be introduced to the trade is Souvenir du Maxime Cornu, a
deeper color with a shading similar to that in the Mme. Edward
Herriot Rose. Lutea and its hybrids bloom later than the other
The dainty fennel-leafed Peony, P. tenuifolia, follows the Tree
Peonies, and its dazzlingly brilliant scarlet flowers always attract
attention. It requires careful cultivation and only grows about
a foot high. Next in point of interest and season of bloom are
Lemoine's Wittmanniana hybrids, produced by crossing the pale
yellow Peony Wittmanniana, itself a rather difficult species to
grow, with P. Chinensis, resulting in types of strong, vigorous
growths, with handsome decorative foliage and large single flowers.
There are four of them: Avante Garde, pale rose; Le Printemps,
creamy yellow; Mai Fleuri, white shaded salmon; and Messagere,
The Officinalis types begin to bloom almost invariably ten days
before the Chinensis varieties. Officinalis rubra, the brilliant
early red of our grandmothers' gardens belongs to this species,
which is a native of Europe. There is a white one, Officinalis
alba plena, and a very beautiful large flowered pink one, Rosea
Superba, besides a number of named single and double ones not
commonly seen. Sabina, L'Oriflamme, Ourika, and La Brilliant
are very attractive. Most of the other species are of little interest
to the average grower, but I have cut blooms of Triternata and
Arietina in April, and of Rubra Superba the 27th of June, a season
of quite two months.
The cultivation of Peonies is so simple that lengthy instructions
seem unnecessary and confusing. They will grow in any situation
and in any soil, where one would attempt to raise corn or potato
In a light sandy soil they bloom earlier, mature more quickly, the
colors are lighter and the season of bloom shorter than when they
are planted in a heavy clay loam, where it takes the young plant-
76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
a year or more longer to reach perfection, but here the growth is
stronger, the colors more brilliant, and the flowers are larger and
of longer duration. Exactly the same difference is observed be-
tween plants grown in the south and middle states, and those
grown far north. The Peony is the flower for extremely cold
climates, but may be grown in California and in the south if given
congenial loamy soil and abundance of water during the growing
season and a situation shaded from the sun during the heat of the
Peonies are gross feeders, reaching their greatest perfection when
well fed and the ground frequently cultivated, until the buds begin
to show color. If a drought occurs at that stage they should be
well watered. Two things they promptly resent: sour, acid soil
and fresh manure in direct contact with the roots when first planted.
While they absorb an abundance of food when well established and
during their active growing period, to plant the young roots in
soil overloaded with fresh manure, especially if it is sour, is some-
times fatal and invariably causes them to become sick. This is
undoubtedly the cause of most of the so-called " club root."
The effect is a production of many weak stems, which fail to
mature to buds. Peonies should be planted in fresh soil, and any
manure used should be thoroughly rotted, carefully worked in,
and not allowed to come in direct contact with the roots. Plant
so that the eyes are two to three inches below the surface of the
ground (too deep planting is injurious). Feeding should be in the
form of a good coat of manure over the surface after the ground
freezes. This prevents the roots from being thrown out from the
heaving caused by alternate freezing and thawing. This covering
can be worked into the ground a little distance away from the
crowns in early spring, and will furnish the food they need and can
then assimilate as active growth begins.
When once planted, let them alone for as many years as they
seem to thrive, only dividing and replanting when the plants show
indications of deterioration; unless for the purpose of increasing
the stock which is another matter. For the purpose of propagating,
they should be divided every second or third year, but for garden
effect Peonies usually reach perfection the fourth year, continuing
in good condition several years longer, and in many instances old
THE PEONY 77
clumps fifteen to twenty years of age continue to thrive. As a
general rule, however, eight years is about the limit.
When the clumps begin to show the necessity for replanting, it
is best to start again at the beginning with small divisions of clean,
smooth roots with three or four eyes, forcing the plant to begin
again, and form an entirely new root system. Divisions con-
sisting of large chunks of old crowns simply lie inactive in the ground
and sometimes decay entirely. It is a common mistake to purchase
old, heavy clumps, with the expectation of getting immediate
effect and better results. For the first year probably one may,
but never thereafter.
Time to Plant.
Any time in the year when the ground is not frozen, Peonies
may be moved successfully, except from the time the buds begin
to form until the foliage is matured and the new roots complete
their growth, about the middle of August. The very best time is
in September and early October. The growth then is fully com-
pleted, and the roots in a dormant state. Planted then, the new
feeding roots soon begin to form, and strong roots almost invariably
bloom the following June. November and December planting
is perfectly safe, but bloom must not be expected the first year,
and early spring is as good a time to plant as very late fall. If one
cannot plant in September or October, it becomes merely a matter
of convenience whether to plant in fall or spring.
The Peony has always been considered singularly free from
diseases or insect pests, and to all intents and purposes, so far as
the amateur is concerned, this is still true. There are two troubles,
however, which within the last few years have given rise to
deal of discussion, most of which I believe has been misleading,
and since scientists at a Dumber of experiment stations where
investigations have been undertaken, do not fully agree upon the
nature or the cause of the trouble, and do not suggest a remedy!
78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
I will simply state my own experiences and conclusions, which I
feel sure will tend to allay any needless apprehension on the part
of the amateur gardener.
In certain seasons under favorable conditions Peonies are subject
to fungous attacks manifested first by black spots on the leaves,
second, by a blighting of the buds when half opened, or the decay-
ing of the half-opened buds at the base of the petals, deforming
the flower; third, the extension of the fungous growth down the
stem, sometimes its entire length, causing what is commonly called
"stem rot," which in severe cases extends down into the roots.
Sometimes the stem is first affected, causing it to "damp off" and
wilt. The conditions favorable to the spread of fungus seem to
be moist, humid weather, with frequent showers, followed by hot
sunshine. It may be quite severe one season and disappear en-
tirely the following season, and unless the roots themselves are
affected, there seems to be no permanent injury, and it is only in
a few sections where serious harm has been done, and where I
believe the same soil condition and overfeeding, which I have
previously explained, have something to do with it. Spraying
with Bordeaux mixture as a preventative has been recommended.
Where roots are badly affected it is best to replant them in perfectly
fresh, sweet soil, free from manure, cutting away all affected parts.
The other trouble is variously known as "Nematodes or Eel
worms," "Club roots," "Lemoine Disease," etc. There has been
much discussion and difference of opinion regarding these so-called
diseased roots. I believe it to be more a condition than a disease;
a condition brought on usually, as previously stated, by the exces-
sive use of manure when the roots are newly planted and before
they can properly assimilate the overdose. It is manifested by
distorted, undeveloped roots, covered with lumpy knots and
nodules. An unusual number of eyes are formed, sending up many
stems of weak growth, which do not mature flower buds. This
condition can also be produced by too deep planting, the use of
large divisions of old worn-out roots, or by planting in a sour,
pasty soil, or anything which seems to check a healthy action of the
My remedy is to cut the infected roots into very small divisions
of one or two eyes, shorten the roots to two or three inches, and
THE PEOXY 79
replant in perfectly fresh soil without any manure. This forces
an entirely new system of root growth, and so treated, the trouble
usually disappears in a year or two. Some varieties appear to be
more susceptible than others, and occasionally the trouble persists
for a number of years. If these happen to be cheap kinds, it is
usually better to discard them and start new with clean roots;
with expensive varieties, however, it pays to have a little patience
with them. Practically all the novelties from Europe that have
come to us from very old gardens, are affected when we first get
them, and if we were to reject them on this account, we would have
to forego such wonderful varieties as Le Cygne, La France, Mont
Blanc, etc., in fact, nearly all the fine new French varieties, all
more or less affected when first received, but which after coming
from old, worn out soil, soon outgrow this trouble when planted in
new ground here. Remember, you can take the smoothest,
healthiest roots from one place, plant them in a sour soil over-
saturated with fresh manure, and get the most beautiful specimen
of club root the following year. Fortunately it is not contagious
as many have claimed, for you can plant affected roots in good soil
side by side with healthy ones, and I have never known a single
case where the healthy roots were affected by them, which con-
vinces me that the sick plants are simply suffering from a cause
similar to what we would describe as an inactive liver or a bad case
of biliousness in our own systems.
To sum up, fungous attacks are local, due to weather conditions,
and only occasionally seriously destructive. Club roots are due to
overfeeding, improper soil or planting, and is not contagious.
Cut off and burn dead foliage in the fall and use hardwood ashes
or lime as a fertilizer for acid soil, applying manure as a top dressing
only until plants are in active growth.
THE DISEASES OF ROSES.
By Louis M. Massey, Assistant Professor of Plant
Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
Read before the Society, February 23, 1918.
The John Lewis Russell Lecture.
The rose was probably the first flower cultivated for ornament
or for perfume. Being native to the north temperate zone it
occurs within these limits entirely around the world and is grown
in all temperate climates. Millions of roses for the market are
produced in large glasshouses in order that blossoms may be had
throughout the year. In the value of the crop the rose easily
leads all other flowers grown under glass, while its importance as a
garden plant is too well known to need comment.
That the rose is subject to numerous diseases is a matter of
common observation. Doubtlessly all growers and fanciers are
familiar with the two most serious diseases, black-spot and mildew.
These may be said to be ubiquitous, while the attention of rosarians
is focused on various other diseases of more or less general occur-
rence as they assume an epiphytotic nature. Some of the diseases
are fairly common in the wild but have come into prominence
only as the rose has become of commercial importance. Other
diseases have probably had a later development and arc becoming
of more and more importance under present intensive methods of
propagation. In catering to the demands of the trade and of the
fanciers, many new types have been developed by breeding and it
is probable that the natural resistance of wild forms brought about
through the process of the survival of the fittest lias been sacrificed.
The scarcity of definite information is one of the noticeable
phases of the subject "diseases of rOS< This situation finds
explanation in the fact that diseases of ornamental plants in general
82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
usually have been studied by pathologists either as an incident to
other investigations or by mycologists interested in taxonomy.
Many recommendations for the control of diseases have been
made without due consideration being given to the conditions and
needs either of the commercial grower or of the fancier. Sprays
which will discolor foliage and buildings may be more objectionable
than the disease itself, with the result that growers have been
loath to use many of them even though their efficiency in suppress-
ing specific diseases has been established. Further investigation
of rose diseases is highly desirable.
Probably the most common and destructive disease of the rose
is black-spot. It occurs wherever roses are grown, nearly all the
cultivated varieties both out-of-doors and under glass being affected,
although not all varieties are equally susceptible. Roses of the
Hybrid-Perpetual and Pernetiana groups are considered most
susceptible. Laubert and Schwartz (I) 1 hold that bushy sorts
are more susceptible than climbers and also that those with thin
leaves are more liable to attack. The writer has observed that
practically all bush roses, Hybrid-Perpetuals, Hybrid-Teas, Teas,
and Pernetianas, are more or less susceptible, while those of the
types Multiflora and Wichuraiana are comparatively free from
attack. Hybrids of Rosa rugosa and moss roses are rarely affected,
although Scribner (2) states that " moss roses and those with thick
rough leaves seem to suffer more than other kinds." This worker
may have confused an abnormal condition of the leaves of moss
roses known as "bronzing" with black-spot. 2
Names applied to the disease. Several names have been used to
designate the disease under consideration, among which are
black-spot, leaf -blotch, star-shaped leaf -spot, and rose-actinonema.
It is perhaps best known as " black-spot," this name being generally
accepted and adhered to both by scientific workers and growers.
History and distribution. The black-spot of roses is not a new
1 Numbers in parentheses refer to a bibliography at the end of this paper.
2 Stone, G. E., and Smith, R. E. The bronzing of rose leaves. In Report of the botanist,
Mass. Agr. Ex. Sta. Rept. 11: 156-159. 1899.
DISEASES OF ROSES 83
disease, being first noted in Italy in 1824. 1 It was probably present
many years before this date and has long been known to the rose-
growers of Europe. In 1825 the Hybrid-Perpetual began to take
first place in the rose world, and as this class is probably the most
susceptible to black-spot it is not surprising that references to the
disease began to appear more and more in articles on the cultiva-
tion of roses.
Saccardo 2 notes the occurrence of black-spot in France, England,
Italy, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Portugal, and North America.
No special attention has been given the disease by American in-
vestigators until in more recent years when, due to the more intense
cultivation of the rose or the production of more susceptible varie-
ties, it has come to be considered the worst enemy of this plant.
Possibly the first report of the disease in America was by Scribner
(2) in 1888. Both Maynard (3) and Humphrey (4) record observa-
tions on the disease the following year. Subsequently the disease
has been reported as occurring in practically every part of the
United States and it is safe to state that black-spot exists wherever
roses are grown.
Economic Importance. Black-spot is probably the most im-
portant of all the many diseases of the rose. It is both an enphy-
totic and an epiphytotic disease of out-of-doors plants, being more
or less abundant every year and in seasons especially favorable for
its development, attacking and defoliating a large percentage of all
garden roses. Under glass the disease is practically always present,
ready to become epiphytotic as soon as proper conditions of tem-
perature and moisture develop. The extreme susceptibility of
Hybrid Perpetual roses to black-spot is one of the factors contrib-
uting to their decrease in popularity. The great susceptibility of
the Pernetiana group to this disease threatens to be the limiting
factor in its popularity unless some practical methods of control
Symptoms. Although the lesions sometimes occur well down on
the petioles and even in the case of some varieties on all the aerial
parts of the plant 3 the disease is confined practically entirely to the
1 Fries, E. Observationes mycologicae, p. 207.
'Saccardo, P. A. Sylloge fungorum 3:408. 18S1.
• Chifflot, J. The extension of Mnrsonia rosa? on rose hushes. Assoc. Franc. Avanc.
Sci. Comp. Rend. 48: 426-428. 1914.
84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
leaves. The more or less circular spots may reach a diameter of a
centimeter or more, are black in color and are characterized by
radiate-fibrillose margins. They usually appear late in the spring
or early in the summer and occur only on the upper surface of the
leaf. The spots are small at first but increase in size as the disease
progresses. Often a number of them coalesce and in severe attacks
the entire leaf may be covered with large dark patches. In the
latter part of the season the spots frequently grow light in color and
dry in the center showing this part of the leaf to be entirely dead.
Very commonly the leaf tissue adjacent to the black spots
becomes chlorotic before the leaves fall from the plant, and not
uncommonly all of the uninvaded tissue becomes yellow before
defoliation occurs. The leaflets may turn yellow in spots, while
sometimes the yellow area is limited to a band outside the black
spot. Commonly, and especially during the autumn the yellow
color appears at the apex of the leaflets whence it spreads downward
and is succeeded by brown. A leaf with a green base and brown
tip with a yellow band between is very characteristic of this disease.
Premature defoliation is one of the most pronounced charac-
teristics of this disease. Affected leaves may fall before they turn
yellow, the slightest jar or breeze often causing them to drop in
great numbers. Diseased plants usually have a partially defoliated
The size and shape of the black spots, the rapidity, and the extent
of defoliation of plants, seem to vary with the variety. No
reports of observations on these points are to be found in literature.
Black-spot of the rose is caused by a fungous parasite, Diplo-
carpon rosae Wolf, long known under the name of Adinonema
rosae (Lib.) Fries.
Life History of the Parasite.
Diplocarpon rosae has two phases in its life cycle — an actively
parasitic phase developed during the summer and a saprophytic
DIBI LB1 - of rosis So
phase in which the fungous lives during the winter on dead and
An examination of the lesions on the leaves during the summer
will show the presence of small hlack pustules which are the fruit-
bodies of the fungus. In these fruit-bodies the conidia or summer-
spores are born. These spores are matured rapidly during the
-rowing season and are blown about by the wind, thus distributing
the fungus and bringing about successive infections with new crops
of conidia. This phase of the fungus is the one most commonly
met with and has been known under the name of Actinonnna rosae
(Lib.) Fries for many years.
During the winter the sexual or ascigerous phase develops.
When leaves affected with black-spot fall to the ground during the
summer and autumn, the fungus does not die but lives over winter
as a normal saprophyte. If examined microscopically during the
spring it will be found that another spore-form has developed. In
this stage spherical fruit-bodies (perithecia) bearing numerous sacs
or asci, each of which contains eight ascospores, are produced in
the old leaves lying about on the ground. These fruit-bodies
serve to carry the fungus over the winter, the spores being mature
at the time of opening of the rose leaves in the spring.
Inoculation. The old leaves on the ground are to be considered
the chief source of primary inoculum in the spring. However, the
fungus is carried over winter on plants under glass from which
conidia could be carried readily by the wind to the newly develop-
ing leaves on out-of-doors plants. Growers frequently buy pot
grown plants in the spring to plant in their gardens and are likely
to thus carry the fungus to the plants which were out-of-doors
during the winter. Scribner (2) who was acquainted only with
the asexual stage suggests that the spores (asexual) lodge on the
buds in the autumn and remain there dormant until the leaves
have expanded the following autumn. In warmer climates the
conidia may live over winter and serve as inoculum the following
spring. No special investigations on this point have been reported
in literature. Wolf (5) could find in wintered material no acervuli
which were bearing conidia. It seems very improbable that the
conidia winter in any sections of Massachusetts or places having
similar temperatures. The evidence derived from observations
86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
on the parasite warrant the conclusion that, as has been found to
be true of many fungi, this fungus is carried through the winter
on fallen leaves in which the ascosporic stage develops the following
Although when mature the asci discharge the spores through an
apical pore formed by the rupture of the wall, the spores are
apparently not discharged with violence. Wolf states that they
merely pile up in a whitish heap in the opened perithecium. How
they reach the unfolding leaves of the plant has never been defi-
nitely determined, but it is probable that insects, splashing rain,
and possible the wind play an important part. Man, in cultivating,
may also serve as an agent of inoculation.
The maturity of the ascospores and the occurrence of rainy
periods when the spores are mature are factors governing spore
Inoculation. The ascospores which are probably distributed
during a rainy period require moisture to germinate and penetrate
the host. They germinate within twenty-four hours. Wolf (5)
found the period of incubation to be about ten days, small black
areas being evident on May 7 from inoculations made on April 27.
Infection. Infection occurs by the entrance of the germ-tube
directly through the cuticle of the leaf. The resulting mycelium
remains for some time immediately beneath the cuticle, later
penetrating the tissues below, first filling the epidermal cells and
only in advanced stages of the disease penetrating the mesophyll.
The black appearance of the spots is not due to the fungus, which
is almost colorless, but to the disintegration of the cells below the
Temperature and especially moisture are factors which may
influence the severity of the disease by their effect on the parasite
and the host. It is a matter of common observation that green-
house roses are more subject to this disease in the spring and
autumn when extremes of temperature are most likely to occur.
Frequent rains and general cloudiness are important factors at
these times. Many growers of indoor roses claim that if the plants
DISEASES OF ROSES 87
can be carried through late summer and autumn prior to the time
when firing begins without suffering an epiphytotic of black-spot
there is little danger of plants being badly diseased during the
winter. No doubt exceptions occur, but the most badly diseased
houses noted by the speaker in visits to growers were those where
firing was begun late. The natural heat of summer and artificial
heat of winter quickly dries off the foliage and must thus be in-
strumental in lessening infection. It is very improbable that the
ascigerous stage develops in the fallen leaves under glass.
Out-of-doors, where primary infection is initiated by ascospores
formed during the winter in old leaves left lying on the ground, it
is obvious that the spring rains are important factors, as moisture
is necessary for the discharge of these ascospores from the perithe-
cia. Moisture supplied either by rainfall or by dew is probably
necessary for the germination of both the ascospores and conidia
so that a greater amount of disease may be expected during rainy
seasons. It is a matter of common observation that whereas
more or less black-spot is present every year, epiphytotics on out-
of-doors plants only occur during seasons of heavy rainfall. The
precipitation of dew on the foliage during the autumn when cold
nights and warm days prevail may account for the increased amount
of disease at this time. Lesions on the leaves are more numerous
and perhaps larger in rainy, cloudy seasons than in dry seasons.
When conditions favorable to black-spot are known a big step will
have been taken toward the control of this disease, especially under
Sanitation. Since the fungus lives over winter in fallen leaves,
where the ascospores are produced which serve as the source of
primary infection in the spring for out-of-doors roses, it follows that
these should be carefully collected and burned late in the autumn.
It is also advisable to keep the benches free from old leaves affected
with the disease, for they bear the summer spores and thus serve
as sources of infection. Where a rose garden consists of only a
few plants much may be accomplished by picking and burning
every leaf as soon as it shows signs of disease.
88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Protection. Protection by spraying is the usual recommendation
for the control of the disease of roses caused by Diplocarpon rosae
Wolf. Of the numerous fungicides recommended in literature
probably bordeaux mixture and ammoniacal copper carbonate are
the two most often mentioned. Statements to the effect that the
latter fungicide is as efficacious as the former are common in liter-
ature. Results of the following experiments conducted in 1917
indicate that ammoniacal copper carbonate is not as efficient as
bordeaux mixture for the control of the disease. A mixture of 90
parts finely ground sulfur and 10 parts powdered arsenate of lead
dusted upon the plants proved to be as efficient as bordeaux mixture
and its use rendered the plants far less unsightly than the latter
fungicide. Lime-sulfur solution, 1 part of the commercial con-
centrated solution to 50 parts water, was found to be more efficient
than ammoniacal copper carbonate and probably as much so as
bordeaux mixture and the sulfur-lead dust. However, lime-sulfur
discolors the foliage almost as much as bordeaux mixture.
Experiments in the nursery.
In the experiments performed in the nursery there were nine
rows of rose plants, each of a single variety, the following eight
varieties being involved: J. B. Clark, Gruss an Teplitz (2 rows),
Prince Camille de Rohan, Clio, Mrs. John Laing, John Hopper,
Madame Gabriel Luizet, and Margaret Dickson. A part of each
row of plants was included in each of the different plats. There
were 450 plants in each of the five plats which were treated as
follows: plat 1, dusted with sulfur 90 parts, and arsenate of lead
10 parts; plat 2, sprayed with bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50; plat 3,
sprayed with lime-sulfur solution 1 to 50; plat 4, sprayed with
Hammond's copper solution, 1 1 to 100; plat 5, untreated.
The first applications of dust and spray were made on May 31.
All of the buds had opened and most of the leaves were well de-
veloped on this date. Subsequent applications were made on June
12, June 23, July 4, July 24, August 2, and August 25. Final data
were recorded on September 13, the middle row (variety Clio) being
1 Hammond's Copper solution is a cupro-ammonium wash containing according to the
manufacturer 3.05 percent metallic copper.
DISEASES OF ROSES 89
selected and the number of infected leaflets counted on twenty
plants. The part of the row included in each plat consisted of
approximately sixty plants, and the data were obtained from every
other plant in the central area. Defoliation was not taken into
consideration. From observations it was determined that the
amount of defoliation varied directly with the percentage of leaflet
infection in the various plats.
The percentage of diseased leaflets for each plat was as follows:
sulfur 90 parts and arsenate of lead 10 parts, 7.66; bordeaux
mixture 5-5-50, 8.51; lime-sulfur solution 1 to 50, 24.43; Ham-
mond's copper solution 1 to 100, 37.77; untreated 80.
A point to be noted in the above experiment is the fact that the
plat treated with lime-sulfur solution was situated on low ground
where there was poor drainage. Owing to the heavy precipitation
throughout the season these plants were subjected to more moist
conditions than those in the other plats which had better drainage.
Consequently it is probable that lime-sulfur is more efficient in
the control of rose black-spot than the above results would indicate.
This probability is further emphasized by the following experi-
Experiments in the test gardex of the American Rose
A somewhat similar experiment for the control of Diplocarpon
rosac was conducted in the test garden of the American Rose
Society at Ithaca, New York. Here the plants were arranged in
beds, there being on an average, four varieties of six plants each in
a bed. There were six plats, each of which included twelve beds,
treated as follows: plat 1, dusted with sulfur 90 parts and arsenate
of lead 10 parts; plat 2, sprayed with ammoniacal copper carbon-
ate; l plat 3, sprayed with lime-sulfur 1 to 50; plat 4. sprayed
with fungi-bordo 5-5-50; - plat 5, sprayed with Hammond's copper
solution 1 to 100; plat 6, untreated.
1 The ammoniacal copper carl>onate solution was compos.-. I of ". QUI
honate. :\ pints of ammonium hydroxid (sp. gr. 0.90), ami ."><) gftDoni of water.
2 Fuiifri-honlo is ;i dry. finely cround mixture of mhy drOUi QOppM sulphate and hydrated
lime. It was used at the rate of 10 pounds to ."><> gallon- of w.itrr whuh i^ approxim
equivalent to a 5-5-50 bordeaux mixture.
90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
During the summer thirteen treatments were made on the
following dates: May 26, June 4, June 11, June 18, June 24,
July 3, July 13, July 20, July 31, August 9, August 21, August 29,
and September 9.
Final observations were made on September 24. Due to the
fact that the plats did not contain the same varieties it was im-
possible to compare the treatments by determining the percentage
of diseased leaflets. Gross observations were made by the writer
who also obtained the opinion of the gardener and others not
directly interested in the work. The plants of the dusted plat and
those sprayed with fungi-bordo and lime-sulfur solution stood out
in sharp contrast to the other plants in the garden due to their
healthy leaves and heavy foliation. It was impossible to deter-
mine from gross observations which of these treatments was most
efficient. The plats treated with ammoniacal copper carbonate
and with Hammond's copper solution contained but slightly less
affected plants than the check, and marked defoliation occurred
in all three plats.
From these experiments it would seem that lime-sulfur solution
1 to 50, bordeaux mixture 5-5-50, and the dust mixture consisting
of 90 parts finely ground sulfur and 10 parts arsenate of lead, are
three efficient fungicides for the control of black-spot of the rose,
while Hammond's copper solution and ammoniacal copper car-
bonate solution are much less efficient. Due to its ease of applica-
tion and to the fact that its use discolors the foliage less than the
other two, the sulfur-lead dust l is to be given the preference.
Powdery-mildew is one of the most common and injurious
diseases of the rose, especially of plants grown under glass. Out-
of-doors plants are commonly attacked, the Crimson Rambler and
related forms being especially susceptible. Varieties differ greatly
in susceptibility. The disease was held by investigators to occur
1 The sulfur-lead dust was obtained from the Union Sulphur Company and was so finely
ground that at least 98 per cent would pass through a 200-mesh sieve. It was applied with
a hand duster.
DISEASES OF ROSES 91
on the peach, apricot, almond, and cherry-laurel until Woronichin
(9) proved it to be confined to the rose.
Symptoms. The first signs of the disease are grayish, or whitish
spots on the young leaves and shoots. Frequently, the unopened
buds are white with mildew before the leaves are affected to any
great extent. These spots quickly enlarge, a felt-like coating of a
white, powdery appearance being commonly found on the stems
and thorns. Later the mildew appearance is less conspicuous or
entirely lost, the affected areas turning black.
Dwarfing, curling and various deformations of young leaves,
stems and buds occur. Injured leaves may fall, and the leaf sur-
face of the plant may be greatly reduced. Growth and flower
production is materially interfered with, young buds being fre-
quently attacked and rendered entirely worthless.
Powdery mildew is caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa
(Wallr.) Lev. rosac "YYor.
Identity. The fungus was first reported by Wallroth 1 under
the name of Alphitomorpha pannosa. Subsequently the fungus
was called Eurotium rosarum by Greville, 2 Erysibe pannosa by
Schlechtendahl 3 and Link, 4 and Erysiphc pannosa by Fries. 5
Leveille 6 transferred the fungus from the genus Erysiphe to
Salmon (7) states that roses in America are attacked by two
species of fungi, viz., Sphaerotheca pannosa and S. kumUi and that
the American fungus which has passed under the name of S.
pannosa is for the most part S. hum Hi. He had seen only two speci-
mens of true S. pannosa from America. Stewart (8) reports several
cases of rose-mildew in which the fungus was unquestionably S.
1 Wnllroth. K. F. W. Naturgeschichte dea Mucor Erysiphe L. Berl. Qm. N«V Fr.*unde
Verhandl. 1:6-45. 1819.
» Greville, B. K. Boottkfa Crypto |amk Flora 3: pL 164
hlecbtaodaU, D. F. L. von. Flora D a mBu e u * 1: 168-170 1894
♦Link. H. F. WBUflDOW, Sp.-ci.-> PI. ml mini 6: I'M l^-'t
8 Fries, E. Byt— ■ Myoologfcuni 1:836. 18
« Leveille, J. H. tan Mi. nat. HI, 19: 188, pi 6, 0* . 8. 1861.
92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Woronichin (9) reports experiments with the fungi causing
powdery-mildew of the rose and peach in which negative results
were obtained from inoculations on the peach with the fungus
causing the disease of rose. He also states that a study of the
perithecia, asci, and spores of the fungi from the two hosts showed
differences in their dimensions. He concludes that the biological
and morphological differences noted are sufficient to separate the
species into the varieties S. pannosa rosae and S. pannosa persicae.
Morphology. Under the microscope the white patches on the
rose plant are seen to consist of a mould-like growth (mycelium)
composed of slender white threads with numerous branches which
form a net-work over the surface of the leaf. At various points
upright branches are developed which bear chains of egg-shaped
spores. These spores are easily detached and lie in masses giving
the older spots a powdery appearance. They are produced
throughout the year under glass, but only during the summer on
plants growing in the open.
At various points the mycelial threads are attached to the
surface of the host, minute branches called haustoria being sent
into the outer cells of leaf or stem from which the fungus obtains
its food supply. The cells into which the haustoria are sent may
be stimulated at first but are killed sooner or later.
Somewhat rarely, and probably only out of doors, ascospores
are produced in spore-cases called asci which in turn are born
singly in dark fruit-bodies (perithecia) embedded in the felt-like
growth on stems, thorns and leaves. These ascospores can live
over winter out-of-doors and may serve as the inocula the following
Life history of the parasite.
Norton (10) states that it is probable that the mycelium of the
fungus is able to live over winter out-of-doors in the buds of roses.
Others assert that the mycelium is perennial, reappearing in suc-
cessive years on the same shoots of infected plants. Salmon notes
that in specimens examined the fresh centers of disease which appear
in the spring did not occur at the places where the fungus grew in
the previous year. The fact that sexual spores are somewhat rare
DISEASES OF ROSES 93
might be considered as evidence favoring the claim that the
mycelium is perennial. In countries of warm climates the fungus
is doubtless carried throughout the year in the asexual stage as is
true on roses grown under glass where the temperature does not
fall sufficiently low to kill the spores and mycelium.
There are, then, two and possibly three sources of primary
infection in the spring. First and of primary importance is the
production of ascospores which live over winter in perithecia on
plants grown out-of-doors. These spores are distributed by the
wind, rain, man, and other agents and, under proper conditions of
temperature, moisture and position, germinate and produce in-
fection. The second source of inoculum for roses in the open is
the distribution of asexual spores formed throughout the year on
roses under glass. These spores are very light and might readily
be carried by the wind for great distances. Growers frequently
buy pot-grown roses in the spring to plant in their gardens. Some
of these plants may be affected and often the fungus spreads
quickly to other bushes. The third possible source of inoculum is
the production of conidia by mycelium which has overwintered on
plants in the open. Some doubt exists, as stated above, as to
whether or not the mycelium is perennial in sections having rela-
tively cold winters.
Spores, then, either ascospores or summer spores, are carried to
rose plants in the spring where under proper conditions they germi-
nate. The germ-tube coming from the spore quickly elongates,
branches and soon establishes a food relation with the host by
sending haustoria into the epidermal cells. Very soon thousands
of new spores are produced which when mature are canied by the
slightest air currents to other parts of the plant and to other bushes.
Many florists believe that rose mildew is caused by drafts, having
noticed the initial appearance of the disease in the areas in the
greenhouse near doors or broken panes of glass. Needless to Bay
mildew cannot develop without the presence of the fungus, the
drafts Berving as bearers of spores and possibly bringing about
favorable conditions for infection, either by its effect on the h<
or on the fungus, or on both.
94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
A. Roses out of doors. The efficiency of sulfur fungicides for
the control of rose mildew has long been recognized. Lime-sulfur
and other liquid sprays are more or less effective but owing to the
time and labor involved in applying spray solutions and to the
unsightliness brought about by their use, an efficient dust mixture
is preferable. Stewart (11) reports good control of rose mildew
by the use of a dust mixture consisting of 90 parts sulfur and 10
parts arsenate of lead. A similar mixture was used by the writer
in 1917 and it was found to be decidedly more efficient than lime-
sulfur solution 1 to 50 or bordeaux mixture 5-5-50.
A row of Crimson Rambler bushes planted thickly and forming
an arbor about five hundred feet in length was divided into four
sections of equal length and treated as follows: section 1, sprayed
with bordeaux mixture 5-5-50; section 2, sprayed with lime-
sulfur solution 1 to 50; section 3, dusted with sulfur 90 parts and
arsenate of lead 10 parts; section 4, untreated.
The first application of dust and spray was made on August 2.
Mildew appeared between this date and August 16, when the
second application was made. Another application was made on
August 25. The experiment was terminated on September 13.
On this date the dusted bushes were practically free from mildew,
only a few infected shoots being apparent. The bushes treated
with bordeaux mixture and lime-sulfur were severely infected and
were but slightly less free from the disease than the untreated
bushes. Besides its superiority in fungicidal value the dust mix-
ture rendered the plants far less unsightly than the bordeaux
mixture or the lime-sulfur solution. The latter fungicide appeared
to be slightly more efficient than bordeaux mixture.
B. Under Glass. Florists commonly paint the heating pipes
with mixtures of sulfur and lime for the control of mildew, the
sulfur being thus evaporated and condensed on the plants where
the fungus is killed. Maynard (12) recommends the use of evap-
orated sulfur, a small kerosene stove with a thin iron kettle being
used and the sulfur kept boiling two or three hours a week in a
closed house. Both methods have given good results, the use of a
DISEASES OF ROSES 95
kerosene stove or other means of heating the sulfur being neces-
sary at times when the houses are not artificially heated. The use
of the sulfur-lead dust on roses under glass will undoubtedly control
the disease and may in many cases be a more desirable method
than that of using evaporated sulfur.
An important disease of the rose, to which the name crown-
canker has been given, was first observed by the writer (13) in
September, 1916, affecting American Beauty plants. The grower
stated that he had had the disease under observation during the
past four or five years, a few plants being affected each year and
the disease being confined to a single house.
Subsequently plants affected with the crown-canker disease have
been received from eight growers, the states of Missouri, Penn-
sylvania, Indiana, Michigan, Massachusetts, and New York being
represented. A Missouri grower observed the disease in 1916 on
the varieties Hoosier Beauty and Ophelia growing on their own
roots. An eastern grower was of the opinion in 1916 that all of
his many thousands of plants were affected, and it is the opinion
of the writer, after having examined his plants, that at least a very
large percentage of them were diseased. During the four years
prior to 1916 increasingly poor results were obtained by this grower
who when interviewed in November, 1916 was planning to destroy
his plants, sterilize houses and soil, and begin anew with healthy
Rose plants of the varieties Hoosier Beauty, Ophelia, Hadley,
Mrs. Charles Russell, Sunburst, American Beauty, and many
seedlings have been observed affected with the disease. Both
grafted plants and those growing on their own roots are affected.
It is questionable whether or not any variety is immune. Indica-
tions are that this may prove to be the most important disease of
rose- grown under glass. To date no record has been made of tliis
disease on out-of-doors plants.
Symptoms. Diseased plants are affected at the crown, usually
just at the surface of the soil, the lesion in advanced cases frequently
96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
extending several inches above the soil. The writer has not
determined to what extent the root systems are commonly affected.
However, lesions have been observed near the tips of roots of four-
years-old plants, and of several plants examined unquestionably
the entire root system of each plant was affected. The union of
scion and stock, and the area immediately above, is the most
common point of attack.
The first indication of the disease is a slight discoloration of the
bark. As the disease advances the color deepens to black and the
tissue appears water-soaked (plate 1, figs. 1, 3). At first the lesions
are irregular in outline with a somewhat sharply defined margin.
Later as the affected area increases in size the blackened color of
the diseased area is blended more with the healthy tissue. The
lesions frequently encircle the stem. Soon cracks appear in the
bark extending in to the wood (plate 1, fig. 2). Later a swelling
of the stem as from girdling occurs at and above the affected area,
the cracks becoming deeper and more evident. In old lesions the
black, water-soaked appearance is lost. Sometimes the stem is
encircled by a shrunken area which contrasts sharply with the
swollen area immediately above.
One very noticeable characteristic of this disease is the punky
consistency of the diseased tissue, especially that affected under-
ground. When scraped, the bark, sapwood and frequently the
roots appear punky and lifeless, not uncommonly in areas where
no definite lesion is evident.
Suckers developing from the roots of diseased plants are usually
spindling and yellow. They are commonly affected at the point
of attachment to the main stem, the tissue being blackened and of
a punky texture.
Affected plants do not die quickly but linger on and yield in-
creasingly poor and few blossoms. It is practically impossible to
force such plants to increased activity by heavy applications of
fertilizers. The foliage of plants affected with this disease is fre-
quently of a lighter green color than that of healthy plants. Prob-
ably the number of plants actually killed within the duration of
time they are usually kept by growers is very small, but the normal
activities of the plant are so materially interfered with that diseased
plants can be grown only at a financial loss.
DISEASES OF ROSES 97
Cause. Crown-canker of the rose is caused by the fungus
Cylindrocladium scoparium. This organism was first reported
from Ohio where it was found growing saprophytically on a pod
of the honey-locust. Later it was found living on dead paw-paw
leaves. The writer described the fungus as a parasite on the rose
in December, 1917.
Although spores of the fungus have never been found by the
writer on plants growing in the benches, they frequently develop
in from two to five days on diseased rose plants when kept in a
moist chamber. Consequently they are probably formed in the
greenhouse on plants growing under moist conditions. Spores
placed in water germinated after three to twelve hours. They
are thin walled and probably not long lived. Just what part they
play in disseminating the fungus is unknown. Infection of plants
is readily obtained by spraying them with water containing viable
spores in suspension.
Moisture apparently plays an important role in the severity of
the disease. Lesions on stems well above the surface of the soil
resulting from artificial inoculations appear to dry and make no
further progress unless kept moist by being surrounded with wet
cotton or some such substance. Inoculations made at a point
several inches above the soil frequently result as above. One
grower who has had considerable experience with crown-canker is
of the opinion that the disease is lessened by placing plants with
the graft union above the soil, thereby preventing infection at this
point. The same grower stated that the seriousness of the disease
is reduced by pulling the soil away from the crown of the plant,
thus creating a more dry condition at this point. These are un-
desirable methods, for grafted plants usually develop roots at the
graft union when planted sufficiently deep. It is the opinion of
the writer that the fungus is low in parasitism and that conditions
of moisture are important factors in its development.
Control. Although experiments are under way in the hope of
developing some method of controlling tin- crown-canker of r
no definite results are yet at hand. From the nature of the fungus
98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
and judging from results to date it would seem that control will
resolve itself into some method of soil treatment, probably soil
sterilization. The fungus grows well on both acid and alkalin
media so that the possibility of control by developing an acid or
alkalin condition of the soil does not appear to be promising. Soil
sterilization and the exercise of care in using only healthy stock and
scions for grafting may be the only feasible method of controlling
the disease. Investigations of control measures are being con-
ducted in cooperation with Professors A. V. Osmun and P. J.
Anderson of the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station.
Progress to date has been encouraging and it is hoped that some-
thing definite can be offered growers in the near future.
This is a very common disease of the rose, both of plants grown
under glass and out-of-doors. It is the common crown-gall disease
of the nursery, affecting many woody plants, trees, and shrubs, as
well as herbaceous plants. Roses in benches are frequently severely
affected. Much interest in recent years has been attached to the
study of this disease because of its resemblance to malignant
human tumors, with the possibility that light may be thrown upon
History and distribution. The disease has been known in Europe
for over fifty years, being generally ascribed to frosts and mechani-
cal injuries by many workers. According to Smith, Townsend
and Brown (14), Scalia described a tumor occurring an old stems
of the rose near the surface of the earth, but also frequently higher
up. It is impossible to be quite certain that the disease described
by Scalia is identical with the crown-gall of the rose as it occurs in
In the United States references to the disease in literature begin
about the year 1892, but undoubtedly the disease has been present
for a long time. It has been reported as occurring in all the states.
Economic importance. Opinions differ as to just how much
damage this disease causes to roses. Skilled gardeners are gener-
ally of the opinion that serious injury is done, diseased plants being
DISEASES OF ROSES 99
smaller and bearing less foliage and less vigorous flowers. It
seems obvious that the energy used up in the production of galls,
which are often large, must be at the expense of the general needs
of the plant, resulting in an inferior product.
Symptoms. Crown-gall exhibits itself in the production of galls
or tubercles, usually on the roots or the crowns of the plants, but
not infrequently on parts of the plant above ground. Smaller and
younger galls range in color from green to white and are soft and
spongy. As the galls become older they increase in size, frequently
reaching a diameter of several inches and darken in color externally.
The surface is rough, sometimes convoluted, and usually the galls
become firm and hard with age.
Crown-gall is a bacterial disease caused by Bacterium tume-
jaciens Sm. and Town.
The greater number of European observers assigned the cause of
the disease to physical agents, such as late frosts and winter killing.
Others thought the disease might be brought about by injuries
received from insects, while still others believed that the disease
was caused by bacteria, fungi, or slime-moulds, although the
pathogenicity of none of the suspected organisms was established.
In April, 1907, Smith and Townsend (15) described a plant
tumor of bacterial origin, giving conclusive proof of the patho-
genicity of the organism Bacterium tumejaciens which was isolated
from the galls of the Paris daisy. Galls were produced on tobacco,
tomato, potato, sugar-beet, hop, and peach by artificial inocula-
In December, 1908, at a meeting of the Botanical Society of
America, Townsend (16) reported the results of further experi-
ments with the organism from the Paris daisy. A bacterium was
isolated from a gall on roses and other plants which appeared to be
identical with that isolated from the daisy. The organisms from
the different hosts were cross-inoculal>l<\ Smith, Townsend and
Brown (14) report successful infections on the rose with the patho-
gene isolated from galls on this and other plants, and records
100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
experiments tending to show a wide range of natural cross-inocula-
Life History. It is probable that the bacteria causing crown-gall
must enter the plant through wounds. The development of certain
cells in the host plant is stimulated resulting in the formation of
large galls. The size of the tumors, other things being equal,
depends on how rapidly the plants are growing. The galled tissue
is often of a soft fleshy nature and is much subject to decay. Tumor
strands develop into the normal tissue as roots of the tumor, in the
substance of which secondary tumors arise. These secondary
tumors rupture their way to the surface.
The bacterium is a soil organism, probably being able to live in
the soil for years without losing its virulence. Its entrance into
the host is favored by careless grafting and by the presence of
borers, nematodes, and the like.
Control. Since B. twnefaciens is a soil organism, growers should
plan to keep their soil free from it by planting only healthy stock.
All plants should be carefully inspected for galls before they are
set in the benches. It is advisable to burn all cuttings showing
galls. Do not plant healthy plants in soil in which diseased plants
have grown. Infested soil should be sterilized by steam or re-
placed by soil in which no diseased plants have grown. When
infested soil is removed from the greenhouse the benches should
be thoroughly disinfected. The removal of galls from plants is
of doubtful value. Once a plant is affected no treatment will
1. Laubert, R., and Schwarz, M. Rosenkrankheiten und
Rosenfeinde, pp. I-VI + 59. 1910.
2. Scribner, F. L. Black spot of rose leaves. U. S. Dept. Agr.
Report 1887: 366-369. 1888.
3. Maynard, S. T. Rose leaf blight (Actinonema rosse). Mass.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 4: 10. 1889.
4. Humphrey, J. E. The black spot of rose leaves. Mass Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bui. 6: 13-15. 1889.
5. Wolf. F. A. The perfect stage of Actinonema rosse. Bot.
Gaz.' 54: 218-234. 1912.
DISEASES OF ROSES 101
6. Wolf, F. A. The perfect stage of the rose Actinonema.
Science X. S. 35:152. 1912.
7. Salmon, E. S. Sphserotheca pannosa (Wallr.) Lev. In A
Monograph of the Erysiphaceae. Mem. Torr. Bot.
Club 9:65-70. 1900.
8. Stewart, F. C. Powdery mildew. In Notes on New York
Plant Diseases, I. New York (Geneva) Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bui. 328:390-391. 1910.
9. Woronichin, N. N. Bui. Trimest. Soc. France 30:391-401.
10. Norton, J. B. S., and White, T. H. Rose mildew. Maryland
Agr. Exp. Station. Bui. 156: 73-80. 1911.
11. Stewart, V. B. Experiment for the control of rose mildew.
In Dusting nursery stock for the control of leaf diseases.
New York (Cornell) Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. 32: 9. 1916.
12. Maynard, S. T. Treatment of mildews upon plants under
glass. Jour. Mycol. 6: 16-17. 1891.
13. Massey, L. M. The crown-canker disease of rose. Phyto-
path. 7:408^17. 1917.
14. Smith, E. F., Brown, N. A., and Townsend, C. O. Crown-
gall of plants: its cause and remedy. U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Bur. Plant Indus. Bui. 213: 1-200. 1911.
15. Smith, E. F., and Townsend, C. O. A plant tumor of bacte-
rial origin. Science, X. S. 25:671-673. 1907.
16. Townsend, C. O. A bacterial gall of the daisy and its rela-
tion to gall formations on other plants. Science N. S.
29: 273. 1909.
Explanation of Plati-
Plate 1. Rose plants affected with crown-canker. Fig. 1. Stem of an
Ophelia plant artificially inoculated with mycelium of fungus I'm 2
Hoosier Beauty plant showing cracking at crown. Fig. A. American
Beauty plant showing black water-soaked area at crown. Figs. 1 and 2,
natural size; Fig. 3, three-fourths natural size.
Plate 2. Fig. 1. Plant affected with crown-gall. N<>t»> the Uurgi
formed at the crown of the plant. Fig. 2. Black-spot lesions <>n rose leaf.
MASS. HORT. SOC, 1918
Massey — Diseases of Roses
assatfrasrtis Jjrtiotlteal «§btiet|j
FOR THE YEAR 1918
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY
NINETF.KN HUNDRED AND MM 111 \
Massachusetts Horticultural Society.
The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts
under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications.
Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi-
cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William
P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts
Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts.
Fred A. Wilson
John K. M. L. Farquhar
Annual Reports for the Year 1918
Report of the Board of Trustees ....
Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions
Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers .
Report of the Committee on Fruits
Report of the Committee on Vegetables
Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens .
Report of the Delegate to the State Board^of
Report of the Secretary and Librarian .
Report of the Treasurer
The Annual Meeting, November 16, 1918
Officers, Committees, and Members, 1918
ANNUAL REPORTS FOR THE YEAR 1918.
1918, PART II.
REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES
FOR THE YEAR 1918.
The Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural
Society presents herewith to the members a summary of the busi-
ness transacted at its meetings during the year 1918.
January 12. Walter Hunnewell was appointed Treasurer of
the Society and William P. Rich Secretary, Librarian, and Super-
intendent of the Building for the current year. James Wheeler
was appointed Superintendent of Exhibitions for the year with a
salary of $300.
An appropriation of $500, to include the income of the John
Lewis Russell Fund, was voted for the lecture course of the year
Concerning the appropriation for prizes and gratuities for the
year 1919 it was voted to refer the matter to the Advisory Com-
mittee with instruction to refer back to the Board.
The suggestion was made that the amount carried on the Treas-
urer's books under the heading of furniture and exhibition ware
and all other accounts of fixtures and library be referred to the
Advisory Committee for such action as may be desirable.
The special committee on the award of the George Robert
White Medal of Honor for the year 1917, consisting of Messrs.
Sargent, Farquhar, and Roland, reported the name of Professor
Niels Ebbesen Hansen of Brookings, South Dakota. Mr. Far-
110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICCLTUBAL SOCIETY
quhar stated that the award was recommended in recognition
of the important service rendered by Professor Hansen in the
introduction and hybridization of new varieties of economic
plants and fruits suitable for cultivation in the northwestern
states. It was voted to accept the report of this committee.
The following named persons, recommended by Professor
Sargent, were duly elected to Corresponding Membership in the
Isaac Bay ley Balfour. Regius Keeper, Royal Botanic Garden,
I esire Bois. Editor Revue Hoiticole, Paris, France.
Leon Chenault, Orleans, France.
"William C. Egan, Highland Park, Illinois.
Bertrand H. Farr, "Wyomissing, Pennsylvania.
Professor Niels Ebbesen Hansen, Brookings, South Dakota.
Charles L. Hutchinson, Chicago, Illinois.
Mrs. Francis King. Alma. Michigan.
J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Doctor George T. Moore, Director Missouri Botanical Garden,
Saint Louis, Missouri.
Doctor Walter Van Fleet, Bureau of Plant Industry, Washing-
ton, D. C.
F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England.
January IS. On call of the President a special meeting of the
Board of Trustees was held this day.
The President stated that some adverse criticism had been made
ntly because of the action of the Society in eliminating the
money prizes from the Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions for the
year 19 IS which had culminated in a communication from the
Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston requesting that a special
meeting of the Soeietv be called to consider the desirabilitv of
eliminating the money prizes for the year 1918.
After a general discussion of the subject it was voted to approve
the decision of the Advisory Committee in omitting the money
prizes for the year.
In regard to the communication from the Gardeners' and Flor-
Club it was voted to appoint a committee consisting of Me-
REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES 111
Saltonstall, Endicott, Farquhar, Roland, and James Wheeler
to confer with a committee of the Gardeners' and Florists' Club
in an effort to harmonize the differences of opinion on the subject
It was further voted to allow the income of the special prize
funds of the Society, which is required to be expended annually,
to be included in the Schedule of Prizes for the year 1918.
June 27. Communications from the recently elected Corre-
sponding Members were read accepting with appreciation the
honor conferred upon them.
The President presented the report of the Advisory Committee
on the Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions for the year 1919.
He stated that the committee recommended the elimination
of all flower shows for the year on account of war conditions,
the coal situation, and the closing of many greenhouses, and to
concentrate the work of the Society in the interest of vegetable
growing and increased food production.
Mr. Kidder suggested that members and others be invited to
send in exhibits of plants and flowers without prizes and that
culinary herbs and medicinal plants be included in the Schedule.
The Committee recommended the following outline of exhibits
and appropriations for the year 1919:
For exhibition of the products of children's gardens, $250.
For children's gardens within ten miles of the State House,
For amateur home vegetable gardens within ten miles of the
State House, $250.
For exhibition of the products of amateur home vegetable
For a fruit and vegetable exhibition in September, $1000 for
vegetables, $500 for fruits, and $300 for outdoor grown
It was voted to approve the general plan as outlined in the
report, with the omission of the $300 for outdoor grown flowers,
and an appropriation not exceeding $3500 was voted for the
1919 Schedule, to include the income of such special prize funds
as may be applicable therefor.
112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
The special committee on the annual award of the George
Robert White Medal of Honor, consisting of Messrs. Sargent,
Farquhar, and Roland, presented the name of Doctor Walter Van
Fleet of Washington, D. C. The committee stated that the
nomination of Doctor Van Fleet was in recognition of his service
in horticulture, especially his work in the hybridization of the rose.
Among his productions of roses are the American Pillar, Dr. Van
Fleet, and Silver Moon.
The report of the committee was accepted and it was voted to
award the George Robert White Medal of Honor for the year
1918 to Doctor Walter Van Fleet.
The President called attention to the amount of $48,000 carried
on the Treasurer's books as surplus, the result of the accumu-
lation of previous years. Although already safely invested and
practically principal he said it should not longer be carried as
surplus and he recommended that all of this amount, with the
exception of $2500, be carried to capital account.
The Treasurer, Mr. Hunnewell, replied that he could not agree
with the President in this application of the surplus income account.
On motion of Professor Sargent it was voted to refer the matter
with power to the Finance Committee, with the addition of Messrs.
Dane, Moseley, and the President.
In accordance with the provisions of the By-laws of the Society the
following amendment to Section IX. Clause (7) was recommended
and ordered to be presented for adoption at the next annual meet-
ing of the Society in November.
Voted. — That Section IX. Clause (7) be amended so that it
(7) They shall arrange for such exhibitions of flowers, plants,
fruits, and vegetables in each year as they may deem desirable
and shall have the entire charge of all arrangements for conducting
the same. They may also adopt such other methods for promoting
the interest in horticulture as they may deem advisable.
On the recommendation of the Advisory Committee an appro-
priation not exceeding $1000 was voted for home garden in-
struction during the current year and for the employment of a
professional gardener from May to August inclusive.
William P. Rich,
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PRIZES AND
EXHIBITIONS FOR THE YEAR 1918.
By James Wheeler, Chairman.
The exhibitions of the past year have not been as large as usual
nor as well attended, owing to war conditions, the scarcity of labor,
and the elimination of money prizes; and consequently did not
come up to our hopes and expectations.
At the Spring Show in March no prizes were offered but the
exhibition proved a great success. The growers and exhibitors
responded handsomely as the receipts were for the benefit of the
American Red Cross.
Prizes were offered at the Sweet Pea Show for amateurs and also
at the Gladiolus Show resulting in a good competition at both
shows. All the other shows proved beyond doubt that we cannot
keep up the high standard of our exhibitions without offering prizes.
The Board of Trustees has made an appropriation of $3500
for the year 1919 and the Schedule of Prizes has been made up by
your committee and approved by the Trustees.
William N. Craig
T. D. Hatfield
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND
FLOWERS FOR THE YEAR 1918.
By William Anderson, Chairman.
The shows of the Society the past year with the exception of the
March Exhibition were below the average. The high cost of
labor and general war conditions and the fact that the Society
offered practically no inducements to growers were responsible
for this condition.
On January 30 the Carnation Exhibition was held in conjunction
with the Annual Meeting of the American Carnation Society.
There were no carnations exhibited under the schedule of the Horti-
cultural Society. Dailledouze Brothers, New York, was awarded
a Certificate of Merit for rose Ophelia Supreme, Carl Hagen-
burger, West Mentor, Ohio, received a Silver Medal for Solan inn
Capsicastrum Orange Queen and a Certificate of Merit for Solatium
Capsicastrum Cleveland, a dwarf, red-fruited variety.
The Spring Exhibition which opened March 13 was a success
in every way. For harmony of arrangement and quality of
material shown it equaled any show held in Boston in recent years.
First in importance was the exhibit of acacias from Thomas Roland
which included twenty-eight species and filled the Lecture Hall.
A Gold Medal was awarded Mr. Roland for his magnificent display.
Ernest B. Dane had a well arranged group of orchids. It
contained many well-grown and valuable plants among which
were Odontioda Bradshawiae, Odontoglossinn Queen Alexandra.
Cypripediums Minos Youngii and Bingleyense, Cattleyaa Louis
Sander and Kheims, and sonic fine Laeli<>-( at tleva hybrids. A
Gold Medal was awarded Mr. Dane for hi- exhibit.
Albert C. Burrage of Prides Crossing was also awarded a Gold
116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Medal for a splendid group of orchids which contained many
choice specimens; among them were Brasso-Cattleya Heatonensis,
Cattleyas Trianae A. C. Burrage, Snowflake, and Luminosa,
Odontoglossum amabile, Cypripedium Archie Neil, and Oncidium
Ca vendishianum .
Silver Medals were awarded to the following named exhibitors
of artistic groups of foliage and flowering plants: Mrs. C. G. Weld
(Wm. C. Rust, gardener) who had the most artistically arranged
group; Edwin S. Webster (Peter Arnott, gardener); Miss Cor-
nelia Warren (Henry Stewart, gardener); Weld Garden (Duncan
Finlayson, gardener) ; Edward A. Clark (W. H. Golby, gardener) ;
and the W. W. Edgar Company.
Prof. C. S. Sargent (Charles Sander, gardener) exhibited a
splendid group of Clivia miniata which included some very fine
varieties raised from seed by Mr. Sander. A Silver Medal was
awarded Mr. Sander. The same exhibitor also put up a collection
of small-flowered azaleas, hybrids between Azalea Hinodigeri and
A. W. Preston (John L. Smith, gardener) and H. T. Hayward
(James Warr, gardener) were the principal exhibitors of bulbous
plants. Mr. Preston had the best group and Mr. Hayward was
awarded numerous First Prizes for his exhibits of tulips and
narcissi, and for an exhibit of splendidly-grown mignonette in
pots he was awarded a Cultural Certificate.
F. W. Fletcher was awarded a Cultural Certificate for his newest
hybrids in colored freesias, George Page a Cultural Certificate
for a fine exhibit of spring-flowering plants, and Peter Arnott
the same for cyclamens. There were also fine cyclamens from
Mrs. J. L. Gardner and Mrs. Lester Leland, the latter being
awarded a Silver Medal for her exhibit. R. & J. Farquhar & Co.
arranged a Liberty Garden in the Main Hall which was much
admired, masses of the Lilium regale, Azalea Kaempferi, and
other flowering plants being effectively used.
The Boston retail florists were well represented with baskets,
vases, and other tasteful arrangements of flowers and plants.
Silver Medals were awarded the following firms : Penn the Florist,
Boston Cut Flower Co., Henry R. Comley, Caplan the Florist,
Zinn the Florist, and John J. O'Brien. There were some beauti-
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 117
ful exhibits of carnations, notably that of S. J. Goddard. About
thirty varieties of camellias were exhibited by Mrs. Bayard Thayer,
Mrs. Sarah C. Sears, and W. R. Coe, the best of which were the
varieties Mrs. F. Sander, Lady Roberts, Eileen, Sylva, and Frau
Bertha Seidel. R. & J. Farquhar & Co. was awarded Honorable
Mention for a new hardy azalea, the result of a cross between
Azalea Kaempferi and A. ledifolia.
On May 18 Calceolaria Stewartii, pelargoniums, lilacs, and tulips
were on exhibition. P. J. Daly, gardener to L. D. Towle, received
a First Class Certificate for Laelio-Cattleya Dominiana langleyensis.
Peony and Rose Exhibition.
The annual exhibition of peonies and roses was held June 15
and 16 and was well up to the usual high standard. T. C. Thur-
low's Sons were the largest exhibitors, filling nearly half of the Main
Hall. They were awarded the American Peony Society's Medal
for the largest and best collection. They were also the principal
prize winners in the other large classes.
Silver Medals were awarded J. K. Alexander for a fine display
of flowers, T. C. Thurlow's Sons for their extensive display, and
George N. Smith for his fine exhibit of specimen blooms. R. & J.
Farquhar & Co. was awarded a Silver Medal for a display of
peonies and roses. This firm also exhibited the new, large, pure
white double peony Mrs. Bayard Thayer, which won First Prize
for the best bloom in the show and in addition a Certificate of
Merit. Some of the finest varieties shown were Venus, M. Dupont,
Mr. Manning, Germaine Bigot, M. Jules Dessert, Mine. Boulanger,
James Kelway, Frances Wiflard, Archie Brand, Sarah Bernhardt,
John B. Wills, Wm. C. Winter, and A. L, Stephen were the
principal exhibitors of roses. Some of the besl varieties were
George Arends, Jonkheer, J. L. Mock, Edward M.iwley, Mme.
Mehmi Soupert, Mrs. David McKee, Florence Pemberton, Mine.
Caroline Testout, George Dickson, Dean Hole, and Liberty.
I— — ^^v
118 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Mrs. C. G. Weld (Wm. C. Rust, gardener) received a Silver
Medal for a display of Hybrid Perpetual roses; Thomas N. Cook,
a First Class Certificate for a new rambler Ghislaine de Feligonde;
Miss Cornelia Warren (Henry Stewart, gardener) a Silver Medal
for a well-flowered group of Oncidium flexuosum; A. W. Preston
(John L. Smith, gardener) a Silver Medal for the splendid, pure
white Cattleya Charm, a cross between C. Gaskelliana alba and
C. Mossiae Wageneri. The same exhibitor received a similar
award for the new Laelio-Cattleya Rheims alba rubra, a cross
between Laelia purpurata and Cattleya exoniensis. The Boston
Cut Flower Co., Houghton-Gorney Co., and Henry R. Comley
exhibited handsome vases and baskets of cut flowers.
Sweet Pea Exhibition.
The Sweet Pea Show was held July 6. There was practically
no competition. W. G. Taylor of Newport, R. I., had some good
blooms of the following: Constance Hinton, King Edward, Hercu-
les, Margaret Atlee, A. F. Felton, King Marvel, M. J. Dameron,
and Rosabelle. The Blue Hill Nurseries was awarded a First
Class Certificate for a pure white Delphinium Belladonna.
The Gladiolus Show, held August 10 and 11, was not large
but the quality of the flowers was very fine. Thomas Cogger was
awarded a Silver Medal for a fine vase of Miss Helen Franklin, a
new ruffled variety, clear white, with violet stripes on the lower
petals. S. E. Spencer was awarded a Silver Medal for a display
of beautiful varieties. Bronze Medals were awarded Jelle Roos
and C. W. Brown for displays of gladioli and Honorable Mention
to George N. Smith for herbaceous phlox. Some fine seedlings
of gladioli were shown, the best of which was a very large Scarlet
from H. E. Meader. Prominent among the varieties shown were
Panama, Baron Hulot, Goliath, Ida Van, Schwaben, Byron L.
Smith, America, Ophir, Purple Glory, Mrs. Dr. Norton, Nymph,
Golden Measure, Peace, Mrs. Francis King, Red Amaryllis, and
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 119
Mrs. G. W. Moulton. There was an extensive display of the Lily
White, said to be a good forcing variety.
August 31 Albert C. Burrage of Beverly Farms (Douglas Eccles-
ton, gardener) exhibited two rare orchids. They were Vanda
luzonica, the first ever shown in the hall, and Cattleya Fahia. Each
was awarded a Silver Medal.
The Dahlia Exhibition was held September 14 and 15.. Although
the season was very favorable for dahlias the show was disappoint-
ing. The largest exhibitor was J. K. Alexander of East Bridge-
water. The Fottler Fiske Rawson Co. exhibited dahlias and
gladioli; the Ames Plow Co. also had a display of dahlias; the
Boston Cut Flower Co. was first for the largest and best display,
well arranged in vases and baskets, and W. D. Hathaway, second;
A. M. Hayden of Brockton was first for twelve Decorative dahlias;
G. L. Stillman of Westerly, R. I., first for Peony Flowered.
For the best seedling J. E. Jones was first with President Wilson,
a large, well-shaped flower of the Decorative type, rose-crimson in
color, with white stripes on the end of the petals. Among the
best varieties shown were the Decorative: Pink Lady, Glory of
New Haven, Dr. Tevis, Mrs. Addison Pratt, Bradford, Cecil,
and C. W. Hayden; Peony Flowered: Muncie D. Foster, W. G.
Brown, General Cadorna, Lady Gay, and Dixie.
At the Autumn Exhibition, November (i and 7, a Certificate
of Merit was awarded Miss F. P. Mason for chrysanthemum
Monadnock, a fine yellow Anemone, and NashawtUC, a large
yellow Japanese. F. Dorner & Sons Co. was awarded u Silver
Medal for carnation Endurance, a fine light pink, and Honorable
Mention for carnation Xo. 1<»7.
Albert C. Burrage was awarded a Silver Medal for a tastefully
arranged group of orchids and a similar award was given to Joseph
A. Manda for a display of Cypripedium insigne Scmderw Edwin
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
S. Webster exhibited a new winter-flowering begonia, the Exquisite,
and received a Silver Medal. He won a similar award for a table
of begonias which included specimens of Optima, Moonbeam,
Elatior, Fireflame, and Rosalind.
Arthur H. Fewkes
S. J. Goddard
Plants and Flowers.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS
FOR THE YEAR 1918.
By Edward B. Wilder, Chairman.
Your committee is obliged to report a very disappointing year's
work. The displays of fruit have been meager, owing largely to
the almost complete elimination of money prizes from the Schedule.
The growers of fruit faced a hard year under war conditions,
shortage of labor, and poor transportation, and needed an added
encouragement and inspiration to help them to grow and exhibit
the best fruit possible.
With the Food Administration urging the use of more fruit
this Society should have been the pioneer in launching out into
new fields of endeavor and reaching forth to the future. The
number of prizes awarded this year amount to 52, nine of which
are money prizes as compared with 294 money prizes awarded
for fruit in 1917.
At the Rose, Peony, and Strawberry Exhibition, June 15-16, a
Silver Medal was awarded Louis Graton of Whitman for the best
new strawberry of merit not yet introduced. He has named this
berry "Louella" and speaks of it as follows:
" The Louella has now fruited three consecutive seasons. It was
found in a row of Brandywines, so I am sure of one of its parents.
It begins fruiting two or three days later than the Brandywine,
holds its size throughout the season, and also has its hull bright
and green to the last picking. It is a little darker than its parent
and is a rich red clear through. The blossoms are perfect and the
berry is regular in form, very uniform in size, and excellent in
Great credit is due Hillcrest Farm, Weston, Miss Marian U.
Case, proprietor, for her many exhibits of fruit during the year.
At the Sweet Pea Exhibition, July 6-7, she took six First Prizes
and one Second Prize, five of these being for raspberries, the largest
122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
display that has been seen in the Hall for years. Honorable
Mention was also awarded her at the Gladiolus and Phlox Exhi-
bition, August 10-11, for the Japanese wineberry.
A new raspberry called "La France" was displayed at the Dahlia,
Fruit, and Vegetable Exhibition, September 14-15, by the John
Scheepers Co., of New York. It seems to be a promising late
variety, a strong grower, and very productive.
Mrs. R. Goodnough of West Roxbury exhibited a beautiful
basket of Eaton grapes at the Autumn Exhibition, November 6-10,
for which she received Honorable Mention.
Edward B. Wilder
William N. Craig
Isaac H. Locke
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES
FOR THE YEAR 1918.
By John L. Smith, Chairman.
The results of the vegetable exhibitions for the year 1918 have
been less satisfactory than in former years. This was due largely
to the scarcity of labor caused by conditions resulting from the
war. Quantity of production has been emphasized rather than
quality because the needs of the country have been so pressing.
It is only when the people are free from stress that they devote
their time to the improvement of the quality of an article. At
such times there is ample labor available, plenty of time, and the
people are psychologically in a condition to give their attention
to the production of goods from the standpoint of excellence.
During the past year, however, the result sought for was an in-
crease in production, and we are sure this has been accom-
Efforts have been made to stimulate the people to raise vegetables
sufficient for their own needs, and much work of a very encouraging
nature has been done in this direction. If persons who have become
interested during the past year will persevere, a little later they
will see their efforts rewarded, and will then desire to give more
attention to improving the quality of their products.
Exhibitions during the past year have been poorly attended,
and for reasons indicated above the competition has been poor.
The attention of the exhibitors was absorbed in other matters.
They were interested in winning the war and had little time for
a l lending exhibitions of any kind.
During the year, demonstrations were given at Horticultural
Hall by experts in the matter of planting and growing vegetables.
There was much interest in this new plan. It gave a great deal
of expert knowledge to those who were anxious to learn and desir-
ous of putting their knowledge into practice. This is a plan that
we recommend and sincerely hope will be continued.
124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
The war is now over, but we should not cease our efforts to
increase productivity of the soil. Education is necessary and
should be continued.
We realize that, in a crisis similar to the one through which
the world has just passed, the raising of food is a great essential.
While there may be relaxation upon the part of many, it is to be
hoped that interest in agriculture will be kept active so that the
Nation will always have in reserve, so to speak, an army of men,
and women, if necessary, who can intelligently plant and grow
In closing, we desire to call your attention to the many young
men who left their employment in greenhouses, gardens, and farms
to enter the war. These young men are now returning and should
be received back by their former employers. This is not only a
duty that is owed these young men because of the sacrifices they
have made, but, likewise, one that we owe the Nation as a whole.
It is a form of patriotic service, and will come back to us many
fold in future years.
John L. Smith Committee
Wm. C. Rust
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN'S
By Henry Saxton Adams, Chairman.
The exhibition of the products of the children's gardens was held
at Horticultural Hall on Saturday and Sunday, August 31 and
September 1, 1918, and filled all three halls. There was not
quite as much material brought in as in 1917, due probably to the
fact that much of the product raised in the gardens was used as
food or for canning and drying purposes. Our prizes were also
reduced which undoubtedly prevented a number, outside gardens
particularly, being represented.
We noted a decrease in the number of exhibits of flowers, showing
that children's gardens were given up more than ever to the pro-
duction of vegetables for food. The exhibits were fully up to
the standard of the last few exhibitions and in some cases better
than ever. There is no question but that the quality of the exhibits
of the children in many cases equals those of adults at the regular
shows. There were entries in all of the classes in which prizes
were offered except wild flowers, and here again we seemed to feel
the effects of war conditions. In some of the exhibits of vege-
tables there was an unusually large number of exhibits; for instance,
there were one hundred entries of six specimens of tomatoes for
which ten prizes were offered and awarded; there were sixty-five
entries of potatoes; fifty-eight of carrots; forty-four of beets;
forty-two of green string beans; and thirty-six of green sweet corn.
In the class of any variety of vegetable not mentioned in the list
we had eighty-two exhibits with only six prizes offered.
Among the interesting garden exhibits was one from the War
Garden on Boston Common which we think is rather unusual and
particularly noteworthy as an exhibition of vegetables grown by
children on Boston Common. The appropriation tor prizes was
entirely used and it gives us pleasure to announce that for the
season of 1919, with the cooperation of the State Department of
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Agriculture, we will have a larger appropriation and consequently
will be able to offer better prizes in the classes where the small
prize did not attract exhibitors. We have also made other changes
in our schedule which we feel sure will increase the interest among
the children and improve the exhibition.
There were one hundred and eighty prizes offered at this exhi-
bition of which one hundred and seventy-eight were awarded
ranging from five dollars to twenty-five cents.
Henry Saxton Adams
Dr. Harris Kennedy
Mrs. W. Rodman Peabody
Miss Margaret A. Rand
> on Children's
REPORT OF THE DELEGATE TO THE STATE BOARD OF
AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1918.
By Samuel J. Goddard, Delegate.
The passage of the Anti-Aid Amendment to the Massachusetts
Constitution severed the relations which had existed for many
years between the Board and this Society. This amendment
provided that no State funds could be given to any private cor-
poration, so that the State bounty received in August, 1918, was
the last bounty of this sort that the Horticultural Society will
receive. As membership on the Board was dependent on receiving
bounty, it was evident that some reorganization of the Board was
necessary. The Legislature of 1918 therefore created a new State
Department of Agriculture, consisting of one member from each
county, to be appointed by the Governor. This Department
came into existence on the first of September, and the term of
office of your delegate on the Board expired on that date.
One of the most important pieces of work with which the Board
has had to deal during the last year and one which closely affects
horticultural interests, especially the market gardener, is the
European Corn Borer. This pest is a new importation, which
appeared in Eastern Massachusetts and is now prevalent in thirty
towns in the immediate vicinity of Boston. It attacks not only
corn, but garden vegetables, flowers and weeds, and is very destruc-
tive. The leading entomologists say that if allowed to get out
of control it will be the worst insect pest that has ever come to
this country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the State
Board and its successor, the State Department, to stamp out this
pest, and in this work it is cooperating with the Bureau of Plant
Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture. Afl
the insect hibernates in weeds, corn stalks and various kinds of
garden refuse, the most practical way to attack it is to entirely
clean up gardens in the fall and burn the refuse, including partic-
ularly all corn stalks and weeds. The Department is making an
128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
effort to have every garden in the infested area cleaned up, and of
course this is a tremendous task and probably cannot all be done
this winter. Representations are being made to the Federal Con-
gress for a large appropriation to work with in Massachusetts for
next year, as it is felt that this pest must be stamped out here
and now. If it is once allowed to get away and into the great
corn belt it will be useless to attempt to eradicate it. This
work is being carried on under the direct supervision of the State
During the past year Dr. Burton N. Gates, formerly State
Apiary Inspector, has resigned and gone to Canada as provincial
apiarist for the Province of Ontario. Dr. Gates' work among the
beekeepers in this State is well known, and his work has been very
beneficial to the horticultural interests. So far his place has not
The new Department of Agriculture has elected Wilfrid Wheeler
of Concord as Commissioner of Agriculture for a term of three
years. Mr. Wheeler was for five years Secretary of the old State
Board of Agriculture, and before that was delegate from the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society to the Board.
During the year three conferences were held of representatives
from all the New England States to draft a uniform apple grading
law for the six states. Five of these states now have such laws,
Rhode Island being the only one which has not. The laws, how-
ever, differ in important particulars, and as Boston is the principal
market for the six states, it has been felt that it would be of great
advantage to the fruit growing interests if the laws could be the
same. An interstate committee, of which Mr. Wilfrid Wheeler
was chairman, has finally worked out a law which has met with
the approval of all the fruit growing bodies of these states, and this
will be introduced at the coming session of the Legislature.
The State Board of Agriculture carried on an important emer-
gency piece of work during the past year, in the operation of State
farm machinery. An appropriation of $100,000 was made, to be
used in the purchase of farm machinery in order to increase food
production. This money was used in the purchase of thirty-six
tractors, twelve binders, ten threshing machines, two bean threshers
and a hay baler. The machinery was distributed in parts of the
REPORT OF DELEGATE TO STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 129
State where the need for it seemed to be most pressing, and was
operated by the State, the cost of the work in each case being
charged to the farmer. In addition to the large increased acreage
which was put under cultivation, the experiment was a very valu-
able one as showing the place which the farm tractor has in Massa-
chusetts. Five types of tractors were tried out, and the Depart-
ment has reached very definite conclusions as to just what type
of a farm the tractor will prove useful on. It is expected that now
that the machinery has been purchased it will be operated another
year, as the local demand for grain crops will probably be undi-
The Public Winter Meeting of the Board was held in Worcester
in January, 1918, and the Summer Field Meeting was held at
Hathorne at the Essex County Agricultural School in August.
The new Department will hold its First Annual Public Winter
Meeting at Horticultural Hall in February, 1919.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN FOR
THE YEAR 1918.
The year 1918 has brought a break in the customary activities
of the Society, particularly in its exhibitions. War conditions, the
shortage of coal and consequent closing of many private green-
houses, have operated so unfavorably that with one or two excep-
tions the exhibitions have fallen far below the usual high standard
of the Society. The elimination of money prizes from the Schedule
has also had a discouraging effect upon the exhibitors.
These conditions, however, have been offset in large measure by
the adoption of other methods for maintaining the usefulness of
The importance of an increased food production throughout
the country was recognized early in the year and a plan was adopted
by the Trustees to assist in this desirable work. It took the form
of a course of practical instruction in vegetable gardening. A plot
of earth was brought in to one of the halls and a professional
gardener was engaged from May to August, inclusive, to give
daily instruction in the best methods of planting seed, transplant-
ing, fertilizing, control of insect pests, and other necessary informa-
tion for successful vegetable growing. Special public meetings
were held also on two evenings during the week when a number
of expert gardeners, interested in the plan, contributed their
services and their experience by presenting the best practical
advice for obtaining results in the vegetable garden.
This course of instruction was freely offered to the public and
the results were highly satisfactory and placed the Society in the
line of usefulness to the Government in the trying days of the war.
The success of this work suggests also the desirability of the
Society engaging in further efforts in this direction, especially in
the line of amateur home vegetable gardening.
In addition to this endeavor on the part of the Society to increase
its usefulness the halls of its building were freely placed at the
REPORT OF SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN 131
disposal of the American Red Cross and other organizations for
war relief work.
The Spring Exhibition in March was a notable success horticul-
turally as well as financially. The entire net proceeds of this
show, amounting to $4500, were given to the Red Cross organ-
ization, which was in addition to several thousand dollars more
taken in at the tea garden entertainment carried on by the ladies
in connection with the flower show.
This exhibition and its object created a most favorable impression
upon the public generally as a contribution which horticulture is
making to relieve the disastrous conditions which necessarily
follow as a result of the war.
The ever-recurring question of money prizes was brought to the
front this year, resulting in a call by thirty-one members of the
Society for a special meeting to protest the action of the Trustees
in the matter. Both sides of the question were presented by its
advocates and the action of the Trustees in eliminating money
prizes for the year was approved by a large majority of the mem-
bers present at the meeting.
Mention should be made of the annual exhibitions of the Ameri-
can Carnation Society in January and the American Dahlia Society
in September which were held in connection with the scheduled
exhibitions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.
The Carnation Society staged a magnificent display of carnations
filling the large hall of the Society's building. The Dahlia Society
put up its usual fine exhibit, containing numerous new varieties
of this ever popular flower.
The exhibit of vegetables and canned products made at the
September show by the Suffolk County Food Administration
attracted enthusiastic interest.
These three special exhibits helped greatly to relieve the lack
of interest in the other scheduled exhibitions.-
The tenth award of the George Robert White Medal of Honor
was made this year. The complete list of the recipients of this
Medal is appended for permanent record:
1909. Professor ( lharles Sprague Sargent, Director of the
132 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1910. Jackson Thornton Dawson, Superintendent of the Arnold
1911. Victor Lemoine, Horticulturist, Nancy, France.
1912. Michael H. Walsh, Rose Grower, Woods Hole, Mass.
1913. Park Commission of the City of Rochester, N. Y.
1914. Sir Harry James Veitch, Horticulturist, London, England.
1915. Ernest Henry Wilson, Horticultural Explorer in China.
1916. William Robinson, Horticultural Author, England.
1917. Niels Ebbesen Hansen, for Introduction of new economic
plants, Brookings, South Dakota.
1918. Doctor Walter Van Fleet, for Advance in hybridization
of garden plants, Washington, D. C.
The publications of the Society for the year have been as follows :
February 15. Schedule of Exhibitions for the year 1918, 44 pages.
May 11. Transactions, 1917, Part 2, pp. 111-212 and one plate.
July 27. Transactions, 1918, Part 1, pp. 1-101 and three plates.
Part 1 of the new library catalogue, containing the alphabetical
list of authors and titles, has been completed and a limited number
of copies will be issued shortly. It has been deemed best to sus-
pend temporarily the printing of Part 2, containing the classified
arrangement of the books, the material for which has been pre-
pared. It is intended later to issue the two parts in one volume.
The collection of horticultural trade catalogues has been increased
by 160 additions, making the total number to this date 10,825.
W t illiam P. Rich,
Secretary and Librarian.
REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR 1918.
Income from Interest on Investments and Bank
Interest $12,905 42
" Rents 2,608 69
" Exhibitions 398 90
• " " State Bounty 1,000 00
" " Membership Fees 452 00
" Donations 308 90
* " Sale of Lots in Mt. Auburn Cemetery 1,990 38 $19,664 29
Operating Expense $14,108 93
Viz: Salaries $4,413 92
Insurance 510 25
Heating 2,485 21
Labor 2,693 05
Incidentals 1,373 41
Stationery and Printing . . 1,114 78
Lighting 692 39
Library Appropriation . . . 289 90
Postage $152, Repairs $384.02 536 02
Viz: Plants and Flowers ....
Children's Gardens ....
Expenditures by Committees .
Viz : On Medals
Lectures and Publications . .
Fruits $134, Vegetables $128 .
Expense paid from Funds ....
Geo. Robert White Medal Fund
John C. Chaffin Fund . . .
John Lewis Russell Fund . .
Samuel Appleton Fund . . .
Marshall P. Wilder Fund . .
John S. Farlow Fund . . .
J. D. W. French Fund . . .
Home Garden Instruction ....
Bal. of Income from Fonda, unexpended
Excess of Income over Expenditure
! 28 119,664 29
134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Changes in Capital Account During Year ended Dec. 31, 1918.
50 t c of Receipts from Mt. Auburn Cemetery . . $1,990 38
$4,000 United Fruit 4% Notes Paid 4,000 00
General Electric "Rights" 960 02
Life Membership Fees 350 00
Chicago & West Michigan Script 53 75
Expended on account of Library Catalogue . . 500 00
for $5000 United States Steel Bonds . 5,068 06
Capital Increase 1.786 09
Real Estate $498,564 63
Furniture and Exhibition Ware 7,982 61
Library 46,580 47
$2,000 Kansas, Clinton & Springfield 5 C ~ C Bds. 1925 1,980 00
$10,000 Lake Shore & Mich. Southern R. R. 3|%
Bds. 1997 10,000 00
$21,000 City of Newton 4% Bds. 1928 .... 21,000 00
$50,000 Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe 4% Bds. 1995 44,693 25
$50,000 C. B. & Q, Neb. 4% Bds. 1927 .... 50,000 00
$11,300 Pere Marquette R. R. 5% Bds. . . . 9,933 75
$25,000 Kan. City Ft, Scott & Memphis 6% Bds.
1928 25,000 00
$50,000 C. B. & Q., IU. Div. Z\% Bds. 1949 . . 50,000 00
$8,000 Boston & Maine R. R. \\% Bds. 1944 . . 8,000 00
$4,000 Am. Tel. & Tel. Co. Convert. 4% Bds. 1936 4,000 00
$4,000 Interborough Rapid Transit 5% Bds. 1966 3,920 00
$12,000 Pacific Telephone Co., 5% Bds. 1937 . . 11,670 00
270 Shares General Electric Co 11,949 88
Hayes & Loring 2,308 66
$12,000 United States Liberty Bonds .... 12,000 00
$5,000 United States Steel 5% Bds 5,068 06
Treasurer's Cash $5,955.65 Bursar's Cash $342.43 6,298 OS
Samuel Appleton Fund $1,002 00
John A. Lowell " 1,040 00
Theodore Lyman " 11,440 00
Josiah Bradlee " 1,040 00
Benj. V. French " 520 00
H. H. Hunnewell " 4,160 00
REPORT OF THE TREASURER
W. J. Walker Fund 2,448 59
Levi Whitcomb u 520 00
Benjamin B. Davis " 520 00
Marshall P. Wilder " 1,012 00
John Lewis Russell ■ 1,030 00
Francis Brown Hayes " 10,400 00
Henry A. Gane ■ 1,264 00
John S. Farlow u 2,655 91
J. D. W. French " 5,241 42'
Benjamin H. Pierce " 832 00
John C. Chaffin " 1,265 89"
Benjamin V. French " 3,120 00
John Allen French " 5,200 0O
George Robert White " 7,517 91
John S. Farlow " 3,016 42
Helen Collamore " 5,000 00
Library Catalogue 170 00 $70,416 14
Capital & Reserve 760,533 25
Life Members, December 31, 1917 797
Added in 1918 14
Deceased 21 790
Annual Members December 31, 1917 191
Added in 1918 10
Deceased 2 . .
Resigned 1 . .
Dropped for non-payment of dues 3 . . 6 195
Membership, December 31, 1918 985
Income from Membership.
14 New Life Members at $30 $420 00
10 New Annual Members at $10 100 00
Assessments for 1918 282 00
136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Balanxe Sheet — December 31, 1918.
Treasurer 85,955 65
Bursar 342 43 $6,298 08
Investments 269,214 94
Property. Massachusetts and Huntington Avenues . . . 498,564 63
Furniture and Exhibition Ware 7,982 61
Library Equipment 46,580 47
Fuxds and Capital.
Subscriptions for Library Catalogue .... S670 00
Less Payments 500 00 170 00
Life Membership Fees 4,950 00
Mount Auburn Cemetery Fund ...... 7,137 68
Sundry Funds 65,246 14
Unrestricted Fund 5,000 00
Bequest of F. B. Hayes 247,489 27
Less Guardian Account $82,496 43 ... .
Trustee Account 2,308 66 ... . 84,805 09 162,684 18
Capital Account 564,524 70
Less loss on bonds 2 50 564,522 20
Accumulated Reserve 18,930 53
REPORT OF THE TREASURER 137
40 State Street, Boston,
March 5, 1919.
To the Finance Committee of the
Massachusetts Horticultural Society.
As requested by you I have made a thorough audit of the books and
general accounting affairs of the Massachusetts Horticultural So-
ciety for the year which ended with the thirty-first day of December, 1918,
and herewith submit to you my report of the same.
I reviewed and checked all additions, entries and postings in the books
of the Society which dealt with the income and outgo of moneys; examined
the checks and approved vouchers representing disbursements, which were
in all instances adequate to sustain the charges of moneys expended; saw
that all income was deposited in banks to the credit of the Society and found
the amount of cash required by the cash book upon the first day of January,
1919, to have been on hand.^
I examined the securities of the Society and they were in all details in
accordance with the requirements of the records. All postings from the
journal and cash books were traced into the ledger and I certify that the
balance sheet of the 31st day of December, 1918, is a correct abstract and
that the Treasurer's statement of the assets and liabilities of the Society
upon said date is true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
In short, I satisfied myself that the work in connection with the account-
ing affairs of the Society is being intelligently and faithfully performed and
that the books and papers of the Society are in commendable condition.
Yours very respectfully,
Certified Public Accountant.
THE ANNUAL MEETING, NOVEMBER 16, 1918.
ANNUAL MEETING FOR THE YEAR 1918.
The Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society
for the year 1918 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, on Satur-
day, November 16, at twelve o'clock noon, with President Salton-
stall in the Chair.
The Secretary read the call for the meeting and the President
appointed Messrs. E. B. Wilder, J. A. Crosby, and W. P. Rich
a committee to receive, assort, and count the ballots, and to report
the number, and he declared the polls open until three o'clock.
The record of the preceding meeting of the Society was read and
President Saltonstall announced that the Board of Trustees
had made an appropriation of $3500 for prizes at the exhibitions
of the year 1919, to be expended mainly for the encouragement of
fruit and vegetable growing.
Under the head of "Any Other Business" William N. Craig said
that it had been clearly proven by the experience of the present
year that the elimination of money prizes from the Schedule had
caused a decided lack of interest in the exhibitions and that they
had not been creditable to the Society. He thought the proposed
exclusion of flower shows from the Schedule of 1919 was unfortu-
nate and not for the best interest of the Society.
While not making any formal motion he wished to suggest that
the Trustees consider the matter of an appropriation for exhibits
of flowers during the coming year. The President answered that
the suggestion of Mr. Craig would be presented at the next meeting
of the Board of Trustees. He then called Vice President Kidder
to the Chair and declared a recess until three o'clock.
At three o'clock Mr. Kidder declared the polls closed and the
ballot committee reported through Mr. Wilder the result of the
voting as follows:
Whole number of ballots cast 27.
For President, William C. Endicott had 26.
142 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
For Vice President (for two years), Nathaniel T. Kidder had 25.
For Trustees (for three years), George E. Barnard had 24;
Arthur F. Estabrook, 26; John K M. L. Farquhar, 22; Richard
M. Saltonstall, 22.
For Nominating Committee, William Anderson, 26; Peter
Fisher, 25; Robert T. Jackson, 23; Edwin S. Webster, 25; Ernest
H. Wilson, 23.
For Amendment to Section IX. of the By-laws the ballots
recorded Yes 10, No 17.
Vice President Kidder announced that the following list of
officers of the Society for the year 1919 had been duly elected :
President William C. Endicott
Vice President Nathaniel T. Kidder
(for two years)
Trustees George E. Barnard
(for three years) Arthur F. Estabrook
John K. M. L. Farquhar
Richard M. Saltonstall
Nominating Committee William Anderson
Robert T. Jackson
Edwin S. Webster
Ernest H. Wilson
He further announced that the proposed amendment to Section
IX. of the By-laws had failed to receive the two-thirds vote required
and was therefore not adopted.
The meeting was then dissolved.
William P. Rich,
Mrs. Nancy Wyman Cutter Holt
George W. Fowle
Albert M. Davenport
Joseph S. Chase
Benjamin Marston Watson
Miss Fanny Brooks
George von L. Meyer
Andrew Robeson Sargent
George Golding Kennedy
Mrs. Frederick Ayer
Mrs. Nancy Jewett Bigelow
David Rankin Craig
Ernest W. Bowditch
Jason S. Bailey
Christopher Minot Weld
William F. Dreer
Frank E. Peabody
D. Webster King
A. A. Marshall
OFFICERS, COMMITTEES, AND MEMBERS, 1918.
assarjntsttts jnrtktrltural ^atuty.
OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Newton.
NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton.
CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline.
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston.
WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.*
THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston.
GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich.
ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline.
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT. of Boston.
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston.
JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, of Boston.
WALTER HUNNEWKI.I.. of Boston.
CHARLES W. MOSELEY, of Newburyport.
ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston.
THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant.
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston.
STEPHEN M. WELD, of Warkham.
Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture.
9 SAMUEL J. GODDARD. of Framinoham.
JOHN S. AMES, Boston ROBERT CAMERON, Cambridge.
THOMAS ROLAND. Nahant. EDWIN B. WEBSTER, Boston.
ERNEST H WILSON Boeroir.
♦Communications to the Srrrrtary. <>n the business of the Society, should be
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall. Boston
150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
COMMITTEES FOE 1918
WALTER HUNXEWELL, Chairman
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK STEPHEN M. WELD
THOMAS ALLEN CHARLES W. MOSELEY
GEORGE E. BARNARD THOMAS ROLAND
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL
Committee on Prises and Exhibitions
JAMES WHEELER, Chairman
ROBERT CAMERON DUNCAN FINLAYSON
WILLIAM N. CRAIG T. D. HATFIELD
Committee on Plants and Flowers
WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman
ARTHUR H. FEWKES DONALD McKENZIE
S. J. GODDARD WILLIAM SIM
Committee on Fruits
EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman
WILLIAM N. CRAIG ISAAC H. LOCKE
Committee on Vegetables
JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman
EDWARD PARKER WILLIAM C. RUST
Committee on Gardens
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman
JOHN 3. AMES WILLIAM NICHOLSON
DAVID R. CRAIG CHARLES SANDER
CHARLES H. TENNEY
Committee on Library
CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman
ERNEST B. DANE NATHANIEL T. KIDDER
Committee on Lectures and Publications
FRED A. WILSON, Chairman
THOMAS ALLEN JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR
Committee on Children's Gardens
HENRY S. ADAMS, Chairman
DR. HARRIS KENNEDY MRS. W. RODMAN PEABODY
MISS MARGARET A. RAND JAMES WHEELER
MEMBERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL
Revised to December 31, 1918.
Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the
following lists are inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly
communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections.
1900 Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, Washington, D. C.
1900 Albert Viger, President of the National Society of Horticulture of
1897 Hon. James Wilson, Ex-Secretary of Agriculture.
1901 George Francis Atkinson, Professor of Botany in Cornell Univer-
sity, Ithaca, N. Y.
1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y.
1918 Isaac Bayley Balfour, M. D., LL. D., F. R. S., Regius Keeper of
the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland.
1898 John Gilbert Baker, F. R. S., F. L. S., Kew, England.
1875 Professor William J. Beal, Amherst, Mass.
1918 Desire Bois, Editor of La Revue Horticole, Paris, France.
1918 Leon Chenault, Orleans, France.
1911 W. J. Bean, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.
1911 John Dunbar, Park Department, Rochester, N. Y.
1887 Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K. C. M. G., F. R. S., "Witcombe,"
1918 William C. Egan, Highland Park, 111.
1887 H. J. Elwes, F. R. S., Colesborne, Cheltenham, England.
1889 William G. Farlow, M. D., Professor of Cryptogamic Botany,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
1918 Bertrand H. Farr, Wyomissing, Pa.
1893 B. E. Fernow, University of Toronto, Ontario.
1900 Dr. Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Washing-
ton, D. C.
1S77 George Lincoln Goodale, M. D., Cambridge, Mass.
1918 Professor N. E. Hansen, Brookings, So. Dak.
1914 C. S. HARRISON, York, Nebraska.
152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, New York Agricultural Experiment
Station, Geneva, N. Y.
1907 Augustine Henry, F. L. S., M. R. I. A., Professor of Forestry,
Royal College of Science, Dublin, Ireland.
1897 J. W. Hoffmann, Colored State University, Orangeburg, S. C.
1918 Charles L. Hutchinson, Chicago, HI.
1906 Senor Don Salvador Izquierdo, Santiago, Chile.
1918 Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich.
1911 Emile Lemoine, Nancy, France.
1918 J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pa.
1875 T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y.
1911 J. Ewing Mears, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.
1911 Wilhelm Miller, Superintendent of Horticulture, University of
Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens
Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland.
1918 Dr. George T. Moore, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden,
St. Louis, Mo.
1887 Sir Daniel Morris, C. M. G., D.Sc, M. A., F. L. S.
1898 Peter N$vik, Secretary of the Norwegian Horticultural Society,
1912 C. Harm an Payne, London, England.
1906 Sir David Prain, C. I. E., C. M. G.,.F. R. S., Director of the Royal
Botanic Gardens, Kew, England
1894 Cavaliere Enrico Ragusa, Palermo, Sicily.
1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, C. M. G., F. R. S., Kew, England.
1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray Her-
barium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
1875 William Robinson, London, England.
1899 William Salway, Superintendent of Spring Grove Cemetery,
1875 Robert W. Starr, WolfviUe, N. S.
1893 Professor William Trelease, University of Illinois, Urbana,
1918 Dr. Walter Van Fleet, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
1882 H. J. Veitch, Chelsea, England.
1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam,
1918 F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England.
1894 William Watson, Curator of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.
1906 Miss E. Willmott, Essex, England.
1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass.
1901 Professor L. Wittmack, Secretary of the Royal Prussian Horti-
cultural Society, Berlin, Prussia.
1899 Adams, Mrs Charles Francis,
1907 Adams, George E., Kingston,
1897 Adams, Henry Saxton, Jamaica
1899 Agassiz, Mrs. George R., Yar-
1894 Allen, Hon. Charles H., Lowell.
1916 Allen, Edward Ellis, Water-
1905 Allen, Mrs. Sarah R., Wilming-
1898 Allen, Thomas, Boston.
1899 Ames, F. Lothrop, North
1914 Ames, Mrs. F. L., North
1899 Ames, John S., North Easton.
1894 Ames, Oakes, North Easton.
1899 Ames, Oliver, North Easton.
1867 Amory, Fredertc, Boston.
1899 Anderson, Larz, Brookline.
1911 Anderson, William, South Lan-
1864 Andrews, Charles L., Milton.
1871 Appleton, Hon. Francis H.,
1914 Appleton, Francis R., New
York, N. Y.
1913 Appleton, Henry Saltonstall,
1914 Apthorp, Mrs. Harrison O.,
1900 Arnold, Mrs. George Francis,
1894 Ash, John, Pomfret Centre,
1890 Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont.
1899 Ayer, James B., Boston.
1912 Bache, James S., Sharon, Conn.
1905 Backer, Clarence A., Melrose.
1914 Bacon, Miss E. S., Jamaica
1905 Badger, Walter I., Cambridge.
1902 Bailey, Robert M., Dedham.
1902 Baker, Clifton P., Dedham.
1901 Baker, James E., South Lincoln.
1904 Balch, Joseph, Dedham.
1909 Baldwin, Frank F., Ashland.
1888 Barber, J. Wesley, Newton.
1905 Barnard, George E., Ipswich.
1866 Barnes, Walter S., Brookline.
1904 Barney, Arthur F., Dorchester.
1867 Barney, Levi C, Boston.
1917 Barrett, Mrs. William Emerson,
1897 Barry, John Marshall, Boston.
1901 Bartlett, Miss Mary F., Boston.
1914 Bartol, Dr. John W., Boston.
1915 Bartsch, Hermann H., Waver-
1901 Bates, Miss Mary D., Ipswich.
1915 Bauernfeind, John, Medford.
1899 Baylies. Walter (\, Taunton.
1914 Beal, Mrs. Boylston, Boston.
1905 Beal, Thomas P., Boston.
1891 Becker, Fredrru-k C, Cam-
1876 Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Ded-
1894 Beebe, E. Pienon, Boston.
Beebe, Franklin EL, Boston.
1905 Bonus, Frank B., Beverly.
L91 I Bemis, Mrs Frank B., Beverly.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1899 Bigelow, Albert S., Cohasset.
1914 Bigelow, Charles, Brookline.
1899 Bigelow, Joseph S., Cohasset.
1899 Bigelow, Dr. William Sturgis,
1899 Black, George N., Manchester.
1885 Blake, Mrs. Arthur W., Brook-
1914 Blake, Benjamin S., Auburn-
1897 Blake, Edward D., Boston.
1918 Blanchard, Archibald, Boston.
1908 Blood, Eldredge H., Swamp-
1905 Boardman, Miss Eliza D.,
1899 Boardman, T. Dennie, Man-
1914 Boit, Miss Elizabeth E., Wake-
1894 Bosler, Frank C, Carlisle, Penn.
1887 Bowditch, Charles P., Jamaica
1883 Bowditch, James H., Brookline.
1894 Bowditch, Nathaniel I., Fram-
1877 Bowditch,William E., Roxbury.
1913 Brackett, C. Henry B., Boston.
1912 Bradley, Charles H., Boston.
1914 Brandegee, Mrs. Edward D.,
1900 Breck, Joseph Francis, Waban.
1914 Breck, Luther Adams, Newton.
1871 Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton, Vt.
1914 Brewer, Edward M., Milton.
1914 Brewer, Joseph, Milton.
1918 Brewer, William C, Newton
1905 Brewster, William, Cambridge.
1910 Briggs, Mrs. George R., Ply-
1897 Briggs, William S., Lincoln.
1873 Brigham, William T., Hono-
1909 Brooke, Edmund G., Jr., Provi-
dence, R. I.
1914 Brooks, Henry G., Milton.
1899 Brooks, Peter C.j Boston.
1899 Brooks, Shepherd, Boston.
1912 Brooks, Walter D., Milton.
1909 Brown, Mrs. John Carter, Prov-
idence, R. I.
1907 Brush, Charles N., Brookline.
1915 Buckminster, W. B., Maiden.
1906 Buitta, Vincent, Newton Upper
1914 Bullard, Alfred M., Milton.
1918 Burgess, George Arthur, Mar-
1897 Burlen, William H., East Hol-
1895 Burnett, Harry, Southborough.
1911 Burnett, John T., Southbor-
1914 Burnett, Robert M., South-
1914 Burnham, Miss Helen C, Bos-
1909 Burr, I. Tucker, Milton.
1906 Burrage, Albert C, Boston.
1918 Burrage, Albert C, Jr., Ham-
1918 Burrage, Charles D., Boston.
1918 Burrage, Russell, Beverly
1868 Butler, Aaron, Wakefield.
1907 Butterworth, George William,
1906 Butterworth, J. Thomas, South
1905 Buttrick, Stedman, Concord.
1902 Cabot, George E., Boston.
1914 Cabot, Henry B., Brookline.
1870 Calder, Augustus P., Brookline.
1896 Cameron, Robert, Cambridge.
1913 Campbell, Chester I., Wollas-
1891 Campbell, Francis, Cambridge.
1905 Carr, Samuel, Boston.
1893 Carter, Charles N., Needham.
1899 Casas, W. B. de las, Maiden.
1911 Case, Miss Marian Roby, Wes-
1918 Chalifoux, Mrs. H. L., Prides
1873 Chamberlain, Chauncy W.,
1909 Chamberlain, Montague, Gro-
1903 Chapman, John L., Prides
.1909 Chase, Philip Putnam, Milton.
1895 Cheney, Mrs. Elizabeth S.,
1894 Christie, William, Everett.
1876 Clapp, Edward B., Dorchester.
1871 Clapp, William C, Dorchester.
1896 Clark, B. Preston, Cohasset.
1917 Clark, Edward A., Jamaica
1896 Clark, Miss Eleanor J., Pomfret
1907 Clark, Herbert A., Belmont.
1890 Clark, J. Warren, Millis.
1910 Clark, Winslow, Milton.
1899 Clarke, Eliot C, Boston.
1914 Clifford, Charles P., Milton.
1895 Clough, Micajah Pratt, Lynn.
1894 Cobb, John C, Milton.
1914 Cochrane, Alexander, Boston.
1906 Codman, Miss Catherine A.,
1914 Codman, James M., Jr., Brook-
1901 Coe, Miss Mary Alma, Boston.
1903 Cogswell, Edward R., Jr., New-
1882 Collins, Frank S., North
1914 Collins, William J., Brookline.
1917 Comley, Henry R., Lexington.
1902 Comley, \ orris F., Lexington.
1917 Com. n I \\ '.. Newton.
1899 Convene, Col II. E., Marion.
1913 Cook, Thomas V, Watertnwn.
1917 Cooley, Arthur \.. 1'it tstield.
191 1 Coolidge, Charles A . Boston.
1902 Coolidge, Harold J., Boston.
1899 Coolidge, J. Randolph, Chest-
1899 Coolidge, Mrs. J. Randolph,
1914 Cotting, Charles E., Boston.
1914 Cotting, Mrs. Charles E., Bos-
1892 Cottle, Henry C, Boston.
1917 Cotton, Miss Elizabeth A.,
1914 Councilman, Dr. W. T., Bos-
1917 Cowey, S. R., Walpole, N. H.
1913 Cox, Simon F., Mattapan.
1892 Cox, Thomas A., Dorchester.
1914 Crafts, Miss Elizabeth S., Bos-
1901 Craig, William Nicol, Brookline.
1917 Crane, Charles R., New York,
1917 Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr., Chicago,
1891 Crawford, Dr. Sarah M., Rox-
1917 Crocker, Mrs. George U., Bos-
1914 Crompton, Miss Isabel M.,
1887 Crosby, George E., West Med-
1914 Crosby, Mrs. S. V. R., Boston.
1901 Cross, Alfred Richard, North
1909 Cumner, Mrs. Nellie IV, Brook-
1856 Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica
1899 Curtis, Charles P.. Boston.
Cutler. Mrs. Charles F . Boston.
1903 Cutler, Judge Samuel K.. Re-
I I unon, Frederick w . Arling-
L906 Dene, Ernest B.. Brookline.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1908 Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Brook-
1899 Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., Boston .
1909 Danielson, Mrs. J. DeForest,
1902 Davis, Arthur E., Dover.
1902 Davis, Mrs. Arthur E., Dover.
1913 Davis, Bancroft Chandler, Wes-
1916 Davis, Miss Helen I., Wellesley.
1914 Davis, Livingston, Milton.
1909 Dawson, Henry Sargent. Ja-
1905 Day, Henry B., West Newton.
1917 Day, Mrs. Mary E., Newton.
1873 Denny, Clarence H., Boston.
1917 Dexter, George T., Boston.
1904 Dexter, Gordon, Beverly Farms.
1904 Dexter, Philip, Beverly.
1896 Donald, William, Cold Spring
Harbor, N. Y.
1900 Donaldson, James, Roxbury.
1907 Doten, Scott T., Lincoln.
1917 Doty, George H., Boston.
1914 Douglass, Alfred, Brookline.
1917 Downs, Jere Arthur, Win-
1910 Downs, William, Chestnut Hill.
1917 Dowse, Charles F., Boston.
1893 Dowse, William B. H., West
1917 Draper, B. H. Bristow, Hope-
1899 Draper, George A., Hopedale.
1897 Dumaresq, Herbert, Chestnut
1899 Duncan, James L., New York,
1902 Duncan, John W., Spokane,
1896 Dunlap,James H.,Nashua,N.H.
1915 Dunn, Stephen Troyte, F.L.S.,
F.R.G.S., Kew, England.
1915 Dupee, William Arthur, Milton.
1909 Dupuy, Louis, Whitestone ;
L. I., N. Y.
1880 Dutcher, Frank J., Hopedale.
1917 Dutcher, Miss Grace M., Hope-
1902 Dyer, Herbert H., Arlington.
1912 Eaton, Harris D., Southbor-
1911 Edgar, Mrs. Rose H., Waverley.
1912 Edgar, William Percival, Ja-
1895 Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston.
1887 Elliott, Mrs. John W., Boston.
1888 Elliott, William H., Brighton.
1903 Ellsworth, J. Lewis, Worcester.
1907 Emerson, Nathaniel W., M.D.,
1917 Emmons, Mrs. R. M., 2nd,
1894 Endicott, William, Boston.
1899 Endicott, William C, Danvers.
1915 Ernst, Mrs. Harold C, Ja-
1897 Estabrook, Arthur F., Boston.
1905 Estabrook, Mrs. Arthur F.,
1907 Eustis, Miss Elizabeth M.,
1907 Eustis, Miss Mary St. Barbe,
1914 Evans, Mrs. Robert D., Boston.
1915 Fairbanks, Charles F., Milton.
1881 Fairchild, Charles, New York,
1877 Falconer, William, Pittsburg,Pa.
1884 Farlow, Lewis H., Boston.
1896 Farnsworth, Mrs. William, Ded-
1890 Farquhar, James F. M., Roslin-
1891 Farquhar, John K. M. L.,
1915 Farquhar, Mrs. John K. M. L.,
1884 Farquhar, Robert, North Cam-
1873 Faxon, John, Quincy
1899 Fay, H. H., Woods Hole.
1908 Fay, Wilton B., West Medford.
1914 Fearing, George R., Jr., Boston.
1917 Fenno, Mrs. Pauline Shaw,
1899 Fessenden, George B., Allston.
1917 Fessenden, Sewell H., Boston.
1883 Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton
1904 Finlayson, Duncan, Jamaica
1892 Finlayson, Kenneth, Jamaica
1901 Fisher, Peter, Ellis.
1910 Flanagan, Joseph F., Newton.
1882 Fletcher, George V., Belmont.
1883 Fletcher, J. Henry, Belmont.
1917 Foot, Nathan Chandler, M.D.,
1914 Forbes, Alexander, M.D., Mil-
1909 Forbes, Charles Stewart,Boston
1909 Forbes, Mrs.J. Malcolm, Milton.
1914 Forbes, W. Cameron, West-
1909 Forbes, Mrs.WilliamH., Milton.
1917 Fosdick, Lucian J., Boston.
1914 Foster, Alfred D., Milton.
1899 Foster, Charles H. W., Need-
1917 Foster, Miss Fanny, Newport,
1885 Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester.
1914 Fraser, Charles E. K., South
1911 Freeman, Mrs. James G., Bos-
1910 French, Mrs. Albert M., Read-
1892 French, 8. Waldo, Newtonville.
1893 French, W. Clifford, Brookline.
1917 Frishmuth, Miss Anna Biddle,
1882 Frohock, EtoSOOC R., Boston.
1903 Frost, Harold L., Arlington.
1900 Frost, Irving B., Belmont.
1899 Frothingham, Mrs. Louis A.,
1917 Gage, Mrs. Homer, Worcester.
1910 Galloupe, Frederic R., Lexing-
1914 Gannett, Samuel, Milton.
1914 Gardiner, Robert H., Gardiner,
1901 Gardner, Mrs. Augustus P.,
1895 Gardner, George P., Boston.
1899 Gardner, John L., Boston.
1899 Gardner, Mrs. John L., Brook-
1899 Gardner, William Amory, Gro-
1910 Garland, Mrs. Marie T., Buz-
1904 Garratt, Allan V., Holliston.
1899 Gaston, William A., Boston.
1911 Gavin, Frank D., Manchester.
1910 Geiger, Albert Jr., Brookline.
1911 Gill, Miss Adeline Bradbury,
1911 Gill, Miss Eliza M., Medford.
1865 Gill, Mrs. E. M., Medford.
1887 Gill, George B., Medford
1907 Goddard, Samuel J., Framing-
1904 Goodale, Dr. Joseph L., Boston.
1885 Goodell, L. W., Dwight.
1917 Gordan, Donald. Lincoln.
1899 Gray, Mrs. John I ' . Boston.
1914 Greene, Edwin Farnhani. Bos-
1905 Greenough, Mrs. Charles IV,
L912 Greenough, M». David S .
loi i Grew, Mr-. Bdwaid 8., Boston.
1014 Grow. Edward \\\. Boston.
L807 Halo. Jamei 0., Bjfield
1873 Hall. Edwin A , Cambridfeport
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1912 Hall, Mrs. George G., Boston.
1899 Hall, Jackson E., Cambridge.
1897 HaU, Osborn B., Maiden.
1910 Halloran, Edward J., Rox-
1917 Hammond, Mrs. E. C, Au-
1913 Handler, Max Paul, South
1914 Harding, Charles L., Dedham.
1918 Harding, Mrs. Edward, Plain-
field, N. J.
1871 Hardy, F. D., Cambridgeport.
1905 Hardy, Miss Susan White,
1889 Hargraves, William J., Jamaica
1887 Harris, Thaddeus William, A.
M., Littleton, N. H.
1910 Harris, Prof. William Fenwick,
1909 Hart, Francis R., Milton.
1899 Hartshorn, Arthur E., Worces-
1914 Hartt, Arthur W., Brookline.
1895 Harwood, George Fred, New-
1884 Hastings, Levi W., Brookline.
1906 Hauthaway, Edwin D., Sharon.
1914 Havemeyer, Theodore A., New
York, N. Y.
1891 Hawken, Mrs. Thomas, Rock-
1899 Hay ward, George P., Chestnut
1914 Haywood, H. T., Franklin.
1905 Head, Thomas W., Lake Forest,
1913 Heeremans, F., Lenox.
1903 Hellier, Charles E., Boston.
1888 Hemenway, Augustus, Canton.
1899 Hemenway, Mrs. Augustus,
1914 Hemenway, Augustus, Jr., Bos-
1884 Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Boston.
1899 Henshaw, Samuel, Cambridge.
1901 Heurlin, Julius, South Brain-
1894 Hewett, Miss Mary Crane,
1900 Higginson, Francis L., Boston.
1902 Higginson, Mrs. Henry L.,
1866 Hilbourn, A. J. Boston.
1886 Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont.
1911 Hittinger, Richard, Belmont.
1895 Hoitt, Hon. Charles W.,
Nashua, N. H.
1905 Holbrook, E. Everett, Boston.
1918 Holbrook, Miss Grace Ware,
1914 Hollingsworth, Valentine, Bos-
1899 Hollingsworth, Z. T., Boston.
1881 Hollis, George W., Allston.
1891 Holmes, Edward J., Boston.
1900 Holt, William W., Norway,
1899 Hood, The Hon. Mrs. Ellen,
Sheen, Surrey, Eng.
1914 Hornblower, Henry, Boston.
1888 Horsford, Miss Kate, Cam-
1912 Horton, Arthur E., Lexington.
1902 Hosmer, Oscar, Wenham.
1907 Houghton, Clement S., Chest-
1910 Houghton, Miss Elizabeth G..
1872 Hovey, Charles H., South
1884 Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn.
1917 Howard, Everett C, Belcher-
1904 Howard, Henry M., West New-
1896 Howard, Joseph W., Somer-
1915 Howes, Mrs. Ernest, Boston.
1917 Howes, Osborne, Brookline.
1896 Hubbard, Charles WeUs, Wes-
1917 Hubbard, Eliot, Boston.
1865 Hubbard, James C, Everett.
1913 Huebner, H., Groton.
1875 Humphrey, George W., Holly-
1917 Hunnewell, Mrs. Arthur,
1912 Hunnewell, F. W., 2d., Welles-
1893 Hunnewell, Henry Sargent,
1912 Hunnewell, Mrs. Henry S.,
1882 Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley.
1912 Hunnewell, Walter, Jr., Welles-
1917 Hunt, Miss Belle, Boston.
1892 Hunt, Dudley F., Reading.
1880 Hunt, William H., Concord.
1904 Hutchins, Rev. Charles Lewis,
1893 Jack, John George, East Wal-
1886 Jackson, Charles L., Boston.
1914 Jackson, Mrs. James, Jr., West-
1884 Jackson, Robert T., Peter-
borough, N. H.
1916 Jahn, Paul H., East Bridge-
1916 Jahn, William O., East Bridge-
L902 .lames, Ellerton, Milton.
1902 James, Mrs. Ellerton. Mil-
1913 Jeffries, John Temple I.., Cam-
1899 Jeffries, William A., Boston.
isr,:, Jenks, Chariea w., Bedford.
1905 Johnson, Arthur S., Boston.
191 1 Johnson, Edward C, Boston.
1885 Johnson, J. Frank, Maiden.
1907 Jones, Mrs. Clarence W. ,
1897 Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston.
1897 Kellen, William V., Marion.
1886 Kelly, George B., Jamaica
1848 Kendall, D.S., Woodstock, Ont.
1891 Kendall, Dr. Walter G., At-
1909 Kennedy, Harris, M. D., Mil-
1905 Keyes, Mrs. Emma Mayer,
1891 Keyes, John M., Concord.
1889 Kidder, Charles A., South-
1910 Kidder, Mrs. Henry P., Boston.
1880 Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton.
1899 Kimball, David P., Boston.
1903 Kimball, Richard D., Waban.
1899 Kinney, H. R., Worcester.
1906 Kinnicutt, Mrs. Leonard P.,
1904 Kirkland, Archie Howard,
1899 Lamb, Horatio A., Milton.
1913 Lancaster, Dr. Walter B.,
1899 Lanier, Charles. Lenox.
1917 Lapham. Henry G.. Brookline.
1895 Lawrence, Amos A.. Mew York,
1873 Lawrence, John, Groton.
1899 Lawrence, Rt. Rev. William,
L896 Lee, Daniel D., Jamaica Plain.
I'M 1 Lee, George C. f Westwool.
191 1 Lee, Mrs. George C.West wood.
L88Q Leeaon, Son. Joseph EL, New-
LQ09 Leighton, I B., Ifona 1-
nock, \ .H.
1914 Lelandj Letter, Boston.
L91 1 Leland, Mi ton.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1871 Lemme, Frederick, Charles-
1903 Libby, Charles W., Medford.
1917 Liggett, Louis K., Chestnut
1899 Little, John Mason, Swamp-
1899 Locke, Isaac H., Belmont.
1891 Lodge, Richard W., Redlands,
1897 Loomis, Elihu G., Bedford.
1899 Loring, Augustus P., Beverly.
1905 Loring, David, Boston.
1914 Loring, Miss Katharine P.,
1914 Loring, Miss Louisa P., Prides
1899 Loring, Mrs. William Caleb,
1899 Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, Bos-
1902 Lowell, Miss Amy, Brookline.
1903 Lowell, James A., Chestnut
1903 Lowell, John, Newton.
1904 Lowell, Miss Lucy, Boston.
1917 Luke, Arthur F., West Newton.
1899 Luke, Otis H., Brookline. »
1895 Lunt, William W., Hingham.
1918 Lyman, Arthur, Boston.
1914 Lyman, C. Frederic, Boston.
1895 Lyman, George H., Wareham.
1898 Mabbett, George, Plymouth.
1912 McKay, Alexander, Jamaica
1911 McKenzie, Donald, Chestnut
1868 Mahoney, John, Boston.
1892 Mallett, E. B., Jr., Freeport,
1884 Manda, W. A., South Orange,
1873 Mann, James F., Ipswich.
1887 Manning, J. Woodward, Read-
1884 Manning, Warren H., Brook-
1909 Marlborough, James, Topsfield.
1876 Marshall, Frederick F., Ever-
1898 Marston, Howard, Brookline.
1917 Martin, Edwin S., Chestnut
1899 Mason, Miss Ellen F., Boston.
1896 Mason, Col. Frederick, Taun-
1914 Mathews, Miss Elizabeth Ash-
by, Newton Center.
1901 Matthews, Nathan, Boston.
1906 Maxwell, George H., Newton.
1917 Mead, Francis V., West Somer-
1902 Melvin, George, South Fram-
1905 Meredith, J. Morris, Topsfield.
1881 Merriam, Herbert, Weston.
1917 Methven, James, Readville.
1884 Metivier, James, Waltham.
1914 Mifflin, George H., Boston.
1914 Miller, Peter M., Mattapan.
1888 Milmore, Mrs. Joseph, Wash-
ington, D. C.
1917 Mink, Oliver W., Boston.
1915 Minot, Mrs. Charles S., Read-
1908 Minot, Laurence, Boston.
1892 Monteith, David, Hyde Park,
1896 Montgomery, Alexander, Na-
1902 Montgomery, Alexander, Jr.,
1896 Moore, George D., Arlington.
1881 Moore, John H., Concord.
1897 Morgan, George H., New York,
1914 Morgan, Mrs. J. P., New York,
1913 Morison, Robert S., Cam-
1899 Morse, John T., Boston.
1909 Morse, John Torrey, 3d., Bos- 1909
1910 Morse, Lewis Kennedy, Box- 1909
1913 Morse, Robert C, Milton. 1900
1900 Morse, Robert M., Jamaica
1914 Morss, Charles A., Chestnut 1914
1914 Morss, Mrs. Charles A., Chest- 1908
nut Hill. 1913
1902 Morton, James H., Huntington, 1911
N. Y. 1915
1896 Moseley, Charles H., Roxbury.
1909 Moseley, Charles W., New- 1917
1896 Moseley, Frederick Strong, 1914
1914 Munroe, Howard M., Lexing- 1897
1900 Murray, Peter, Fairhaven. 1909
1897 Mutch, John, Waban. 1909
1917 Neal, James A., Brookline. 1881
1899 Nevins, Mrs. David, Methuen. 1907
1914 Newbold, Frederic R., New 1916
York, N. Y.
1874 Newman, John R., Winches- 1914
1874 Newton, Rev. William W., 1915
1914 Nicholson, W^illiam R., Fram-
1906 Nickerson, William E., Cam- 1917
1914 Norman, Mrs. Louisa P., New- 1899
port, R. I.
1881 Norton, Charles W., Allston. 1900
1912 O'Connor, John, Brookline. 1899
1898 Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr.,
1892 Olmsted, John C, Brookline. isa">
1898 Orpet. Edward O., Chico, Gal. 1903
1917 Osgood, Miss Fanny C, Hope- l
Page, George, Newton High-
Page, George William, South
Page, Mrs. Henrietta, Cam-
Paige, Clifton H., Mattapan.
Paine, Robert Treat, 2d, Bos-
Parker, Augustine H., Dover.
Parker, Edgar, North Easton.
Parker, Edward, North Easton.
Parker, Miss Eleanor S., Bed-
Parkhurst, Lewis, Winchester.
Parkman, Henry, Boston.
Patten, Miss Jane B., South
Patten, Marcellus A., Tewks-
Peabody, Francis, Milton.
Peabody, Mrs. Francis, Milton.
Peabody, George A., Danvers.
Peabody, John E., Salem.
Peirce, E. Allan, Waltham.
Peirce, Edward R., Wellesley
Peirson, Charles Lawrence,
Penn, Henry, Brookline.
Pentecost, Mrs. Ernest Harvey,
Perry, George \Y., Maiden.
Peterson, George H., Fair
Lawn, X. .1.
Pfaff, Col. Charles, South
Phillips, John C\, North Bev-
Phillips, Mrs. John C. North
Phillips, William. North Beverly.
Pickman, Dudley I... Boston.
Piekinan. Mrs. Kllen EL, lk)8-
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1892 Pierce, George Francis, Ne-
1905 Pierce, Wallace L., Boston.
1905 Pierson, Frank R., Tarry town,
1914 Pingree, David, Salem.
1900 Pond, Preston, Winchester.
1892 Porter, James C, Wollaston.
1884 Pratt, Laban, Dorchester.
1914 Pratt, Waldo E., Wellesley
1898 Pray,James Sturgis, Cambridge.
1899 Prendergast, James M., Boston.
1858 Prescott, Eben C, New York,
1914 Preston, Andrew W., Swamp-
1903 Preston, Howard Willis, Provi-
dence, R. I.
1911 Priest, Lyman F., Gleason-
1912 Proctor, Henry H., Boston.
1901 Proctor, Thomas E., Boston.
1899 Putnam, George, Manchester.
1900 Putnam, George J., Brookline.
1886 Quimby, Hosea M., M.D., Wor-
1889 Rand, Harry S., North Cam-
1908 Rand, Miss Margaret A., Cam-
1903 Rawson, Herbert W., Arling-
1882 Ray, James F., Franklin.
1890 Raymond, Walter, Pasadena,
1891 Read, Charles A., Manchester.
1902 Reardon, Edmund, Cambridge.
1892 Reardon, John B., Boston.
1912 Reiff, William, Forest Hills.
1905 Remick, Frank W., West New-
1889 Rice, George C, Worcester.
1887 Rich, William P., Chelsea.
1876 Richards, John J., Brookline.
1899 Richardson, Mrs. F. L. W.,
Charles River Village.
1912 Richardson, H. H., Brookline.
1918 Richardson, William K., Na-
1900 Richardson, Dr. William L.,
1905 Riggs, William Allan, Auburn-
1917 Riley, Charles E., Newton.
1886 Ripley, Charles, Dorchester.
1892 Ripley, Ebed L., Hingham
1903 Robb, Russell, Concord.
1909 Roberts, Miss Anna B., Bos-
1909 Robinson, Alfred E., Lexing-
1871 Robinson, John, Salem.
1900 Rodman, Miss Mary, Concord.
1911 Rogers, Dexter M., Allston.
1914 Rogers, Dudley P., Danvers.
1899 Rogers, Mrs. Jacob C, Pea-
1900 Roland, Thomas, Nahant.
1910 Ross, Harold S., Hingham.
1895 Rothwell, James E., Brookline.
1899 Roy, David Frank, Marion.
1881 Ruddick, William H., M. D.,
1917 Rueter, Mrs. C. J., Jamaica
1875 Russell, George, Woburn.
1900 Russell, James S., Milton.
1914 Russell, Mrs. Robert S., Boston.
1893 Salisbury, William C. G., Brook-
1915 Saltonstall, Mrs. Caroline S.,
1912 Saltonstall, John L., Beverly.
1912 Saltonstall, Mrs. John L., Bev-
1899 Saltonstall, Richard M., Chest-
1898 Sanger, Mrs. George P., Bos-
1870 Sargent, Charles S., Brookline.
1899 Sargent, Mrs. Charles S.,
1902 Sargent, Charles Sprague, Jr.,
1899 Sargent, Mrs. Francis W., Wel-
1896 Scorgie, James C, Cambridge.
1864 Scott, Charles, Newton.
1895 Sears, Miss Clara E., Boston.
1899 Sears, Dr. Henry F., Boston.
1914 Sears, Horace S., Weston.
1899 Sears, Mrs. J. Montgomery,
1898 Sharp, Miss Helen, Boston.
1914 Shattuck, Dr. Frederick C,
1914 Shattuck, Mrs. Frederick C,
1899 Shaw, Francis, Wayland.
1914 Shaw, Henry S., Milton.
1899 Shaw, Mrs. Robert G., Welles-
1901 Shea, .lames B., Jamaica Plain.
1906 Sherman, .1. P. R., Newton.
1865 Shorey, John L., Lynn.
1901 Shurtleff, Josiah B., Revere.
1893 Siebrecht, H. A., New Rochelle,
1917 Silber, Miss Charlotte G.,
1917 Silsbee, Miss Katharine E.,
1899 Sleeper, Henry Davis, Boston.
1903 Smiley, Daniel, Lake Mohonk,
1888 Smith, Charles S., Lincoln.
1872 Smith. Edward N.. San Fran-
l *. > 1 1 Smith, John I... Swampscott.
1888 Smith. Thomas Page, Waltham.
1874 Snow, Eugene \ . Cambridge.
L899 Sohier. Col. William D
1918 Spalding, Miss Dora N., Boston.
1908 Spaulding, John T., Prides
1908 Spaulding, William S., Prides
1897 Sprague, Isaac, Wellesley Hills.
1884 Stearns, Charles H., Brookline.
1893 Stearns, Frank W., Newton.
1896 Stedman, Henry R., M. D.,
1914 Stevens, Mrs. Nathaniel, North
1885 Stewart, William J., Winchester.
1918 Stimpson, Harry F. ; Chestnut
1901 Stone, Charles A., Newton.
1889 Stone, Charles W., Boston.
1910 Stone, Mrs. Francis H., South
1914 Stone, Galen L., Brookline.
1896 Stone, Prof. George E., Am-
1849 Stone, George F., Chestnut
1914 Stone, J. Winthrop, Watertown.
1914 Stone, Nathaniel H., Milton.
1917 Storey, Moorfiel.l. Boston.
L906 Storrow, James J., Boston.
1918 Stranger, David C, West New-
1905 Stratum, Charles Iv. Boston.
1906 Strout, Charles 8., Biddeford,
1914 Sturgia, Miss Evelyn P.. Man-
L902 Sturgia, Richard Clipeton, Boa-
Bui; Sturtevant, Miss I Wel-
1910 Sullivan. Martin. Jamaica
1912 Swan, Charles H . Jamaica
L891 • M 1 . M Men.
1916 Swett, Raymond w , Saxon*
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1904 Sylvester, Edmund Q., Han-
1899 Taylor, Charles H., Boston.
1900 Taylor, Mrs. Thomas, Jr.,
Columbia, S. C.
1913 Tedcastle, Mrs. Arthur W.,
1896 Tenney, Charles H., Methuen.
1917 Thacher, Miss Elizabeth B.,
1912 Thatcher, Arthur E., Bar Har-
1898 Thatcher, William, Brookline.
1899 Thayer, Mrs. Alice R., Bos-
1900 Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, South
1899 Thayer, Mrs. Eugene V. R.,
1903 Thayer, Henry J., Boston.
1899 Thayer, John E., South Lan-
1899 Thayer, Mrs. John E., South
1899 Thayer, Mrs. Nathaniel, Lan-
1899 Thiemann, Hermann, Owosso,
1899 Thomas, W. B., Manchester.
1910 Thurlow, George C, West
1913 Thurlow, Winthrop H., West
1874 Tolman, Miss Harriet S., Bos-
1896 Toppan, Roland W. ; Newbury-
1899 Tower, Miss Ellen May, Lex-
1901 Tower, Mrs. Helen M., Cam-
1914 Towle, L. D., Newton.
1893 Trepess, Samuel J., Glencove,
L. I., N. Y.
1917 Tufts, Bowen, Medford.
1910 Turner, Chester Bidwell,
1914 Tyler, Charles H., Boston.
1910 Underwood, Henry O., Bel-
1901 Underwood, Loring, Belmont.
1917 Van Brunt, Mrs. Agnes, Read-
1873 Vander-Woerd, Charles, Wal-
1899 Vaughan, William Warren, Bos-
1884 Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somer-
1916 Wagstaff, Archibald, Wellesley
1909 Wainwright, Arthur, Milton.
1849 Wakefield, E. H., Cambridge.
1876 Walcott, Henry P., M. D.,
1895 Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica
1914 Walker, William B., Man-
1896 Walsh, Michael H., Woods
1901 Waltham, George C, Dorches-
1907 Walton, Arthur G., Wakefield.
1902 Warburton, Chatterton, Fall
1912 Wardwell, Mrs. T. Otis, Haver-
1894 Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston.
1909 Warren, Bentley W., Boston.
1884 Watson, Thomas A., East
1914 Watters, W. F., Boston.
1905 Webster, Edwin S., Chestnut
1914 Webster, Mrs. Edwin S., Chest-
1905 Webster, Frank G., Boston.
1907 Webster, George H., Haver-
1896 Webster, Hollis, Cambridge.
1905 Webster, Laurence J., Holder-
ness, X. H.
1909 Weeks, Andrew Gray, Marion.
1902 Welch, Edward J., Dorchester.
1914 Weld, Mrs. Charles G., Brook-
1917 Weld, Rudolph, Boston.
1899 Weld, Gen. Stephen M., Ware-
1914 Weld, Mrs. Stephen M., Ware-
1912 Wellington, Mrs. Arthur W.,
1917 Wellington, William H., Bos-
1882 West, Mrs. Maria L., Nepon-
1887 Wheeler, Frank, Concord.
1889 Wheeler, James, Natick.
1897 Wheeler, Wilfrid, Concord.
1865 Whitcomb, William B., Med-
1901 White, Mrs. Charles T., Bos-
1899 White, George R., Boston.
1909 White, Harry K., Milton.
1917 Whitehouse, Mrs. Francis M.,
1905 Whitman, William, Brookline.
1894 Whitney, Arthur E., Winches-
1894 Whitney, Ellerton P., Milton.
1899 Whitney, Henry M., Cohasset.
1917 Whittemore, Charles, Cam-
1915 Wigglesworth, Frank, Milton.
1899 Wigglesworth, George, Milton.
1863 Wilbur, George B., Boston.
1889 Wilde, Mrs. Albion D., West
1881 Wilder, Edward Baker, Dor-
1899 Williams, Miss Adelia Coffin,
1905 Williams, George Percy, Bos-
1899 Williams, John Davis, Bos-
1905 Williams, Mrs. J. Bertram,
1905 Williams, Mrs. Moses, Brook-
1911 Williams, Ralph B., Dover.
1915 Wilson, E. H., Jamaica Plain.
1914 Wilson, Fred A., Nahant.
1881 Wilson, William Power, Bos-
1917 Winslow, Arthur, Boston.
1905 Winsor, Robert, Weston.
1906 Winter, Herman L., Portland,
1914 Winthrop, Grenville L., Lenox.
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert, New
York, X. Y.
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert C, Jr.,
1870 Wood, William K., Franklin.
1905 Woodberry, Miss E. Gertrude,
1905 Woodbury, John, Canton.
1906 Woodward. Mrs. Samuel Bay-
1917 Wright, George B., Watertown.
1900 Wyman, Windsor H., Xorth
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1913 Adams, Charles F., Jamaica
1896 Anderson, George M., Milton.
1912 Babcock, Miss Mabel Keyes,
1911 Bacon, Augustus, Roxbury.
1915 Baker, Mrs. G. B., Chestnut
1918 Barnes, Rowland H., Newton
1898 Barr, John, South Natick.
1916 Barron, Leonard, Garden City,
1917 Beal, Thomas P., Jr., Boston.
1917 Blodgett, Mrs. John, Beach
1917 Bogholt, Christian M., New-
port, R. I.
1901 Bradley, Miss Abby A., Hing-
1913 Bradley, Miss Julia H., Rox-
1873 Breck, Charles H., Newton.
1902 Breed, Edward W., Clinton.
1908 Briggs, Frank P., Ayer.
1909 Brigham, Mrs. Clifford, Milton.
1914 Brown, F. Howard, Marlboro.
1916 Brown, Mrs. G. Winthrop,
1914 Campbell, Ernest W., Wollas-
1910 Camus, Emil, Boston.
1917 Carlquist, Sigurd W., Lenox.
1904 Chandler, Alfred D., Brookline.
1917 Chase, H. F., Andover.
1918 Chick, Isaac W., Boston.
1917 Child, H. Walter, Boston.
1910 Churchill, Charles E., Rockland.
1916 Clark, Schuyler S., Brookline.
1918 Clarke, Hermann F., Brookline.
1918 Cogger, Thomas, Melrose.
1914 Colt, James D., Chestnut Hill.
1907 Colt, Mrs. James D., Chestnut
1917 Conant, Mrs. William C, Bos-
1917 Coolidge, Mrs. W. H., Boston.
1915 Copson, William A., Roslindale.
1914 Crocker, Mrs. George Glover,
1914 Crocker, Joseph Ballard, Chat-
1914 Crompton, Miss Mary A.,
1881 Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain.
1917 Curtis, Allen, Boston.
1875 Curtis, Joseph H., Boston.
1914 Cushing, Mrs. Harvey, Brook-
1912 Cutler, Mrs. N. P., Newton.
1906 Cutting, Mrs. Isabelle Ladd,
1910 Dahl, Frederick William, Rox-
1917 Dalton, Philip S., Milton.
1889 Davis, Frederick S., West Rox-
1911 Dolansky, Frank J., Lynn.
1918 Donald, James, Wellesley.
1897 Dorr, George B., Bar Harbor,
1918 Eccleston, Douglas, Beverly
1916 Estabrooks, Dr. John W., Wol-
1902 Farlow, Mrs. William G., Cam-
1917 Farr, Mrs. Betty K., Stone-
1917 Fiske, David L., Grafton.
1901 Fiske, Harry E., Wollaston.
1894 Fitzgerald, Desmond, Brook-
1917 Flood, Mrs. Mary, Woburn.
1903 Freeman, Miss Harriet E.,
1905 Fuld, Maurice, New York, N.Y.
1912 Gage, L. Merton, Groton.
1912 Goodwin, Mrs. Daniel, East
Greenwich, R. I.
1917 Gordon, George, Beverly.
1917 Graton, Louis, Randolph.
1900 Grey, Robert Melrose, Belmont,
1897 Grey, Thomas J., Chelsea.
1908 Hamilton, Mrs. George Lang-
1912 Hardy, John H., Jr., Little-
1894 Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley.
1917 Hathaway, Walter D., New
1918 Hayes, Herbert W., Waban.
1910 Hayward, Mrs. W. E., Ips-
1918 Hecht, Prof. August G., Am-
1891 Heustis, Warren H., Belmont.
1916 Hibbard, Miss Ann, West Rox-
1914 Higginson, Mrs. Alexander H.,
1902 Hildreth, Miss Ella F., W
1902 Hill, Arthur Dehon, Boston.
1884 Hill, J. Willard, Belmont.
1912 Hollingsworth, Mrs. Sumner,
1913 Holmes, Kl>er, Montrose.
1913 Houghton, Mrs. Clement -
1917 Howard, W. !>.. Mflford
1900 Howden, Thomas, Hudson.
1917 Howe, Henry S., Brookline.
1902 Hubbard, Allen, Xewton Centre.
1893 Hubbard, F. Tracy, Brook-
1913 Jenkins, Edwin, Lenox.
1916 Jenks, Albert R., Springfield.
1903 Johnston, Robert, Lexington.
1898 Kelsey, Harlan P., Salem.
1898 Kennard, Frederic H., Xewton
1912 Kirkegaard, John, Bedford.
1889 Lancaster, Mrs. E. M., Rox-
1914 Leach, C. Arthur, South Hamil-
1914 Leary, Dr. Timothy, Jamaica
1917 Leonard, John E., Wellesley.
1904 Leuthy, A., Roslindale.
1902 Lewis, E. L., Taunton.
1896 Lincoln, Miss Agnes W., Med-
1901 Loring, Mrs. Thacher, Boston.
1896 Loring, William C, Beverly.
1903 Lumsden, David, Ithaca, N. V.
1912 McCarthy, Nicholas 1 ., Sou
1904 MaeMulkin, Edward, Boston.
1890 Manning, A. Chandler, Wil-
1917 Reader, II. E., Dover, N. II.
1917 Mixter. Dr. Samuel J., Bos-
19] 1 Morse, Frank E., Auburn* lale.
1913 Murray, Peter, Manomet.
L916 Nehrling. Prof. Arno H., Craw-
1896 Nieholson, William, Framing-
L9M Nieol. James, Quiney.
1908 Nixon, .1 Arthur. Taunton.
MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
1913 O'Brien, Mrs. Edward F.,
1915 Parker, A. S., Stoneham.
1914 Parker, Miss Charlotte E.,
1906 Parker, Eliab, Roxbury.
1892 Parker, Walter S., Reading.
1909 Parker, W. Prentiss, Roxbury.
1908 Peabody, Mrs. W. Rodman,
1914 Pembroke, A. A., Beverly.
1898 Pierce, Mrs. F. A., Brookline.
1902 Pritchard, John, Bedford Hills,
1912 Proctor, Dr. Francis I., Welles-
1883 Purdie, George A., Wellesley
1913 Putnam, Frank P., North
1906 Rane, Prof. F. W., Waban.
1897 Rea, Frederic J., Norwood.
1912 Reed, H. B., Auburndale.
1914 Rees, Ralph W., Ithaca, N. Y.
1893 Rich, Miss Ruth G., Dorchester.
1888 Rich, William E. C, Ocean
1900 Robb, Peter B., Whitinsville.
1893 Robinson, Walter A., Arling-
1917 Rooney, John P., New' Bedford.
1915 Rosenthal, Wolf, Boston.
1892 Ross, Henry Wilson, Newton-
1903 Ross, Walter D., Worcester.
1909 Russell, Charles F., Weston.
1910 Rust, William C, Brookline.
1918 Rutherford, William D. F.,
1918 Ryder, Robert L., Lexington.
1907 Sanborn, Edward W., Boston.
1897 Sander, Charles J., Brookline.
1875 Saunders, Miss Mary T., Salem.
1896 Searles, E. F., Methuen.
1910 Sears, Prof. F. C, Amherst.
1907 Seaver, Robert, Jamaica Plain.
1886 Sharpies, Stephen P., Cam-
1907 Sim, William, Cliftondale.
1915 Slamin, John, Wellesley.
1910 Smith, D. Roy, Boston.
1914 Smith, George N., Wellesley
1914 Spaulding, Mrs. Samuel S.,
Springfield Center, N. Y.
1914 Sprague, George H., Ipswich.
1917 Stephen, A. L., Waban.
1914 Stevenson, Robert H., Read-
1914 Storey, Mrs. Richard C , Bos-
1914 Sturgis, Miss Lucy Codman,
1904 Symmes, Samuel S., Winches-
1914 Thayer, John E., Jr., Lancas-
1909 Tracy, B. Hammond, Wenham.
1913 Tuckerman, Bayard, Ipswich.
1911 Ufford, Charles A., Dorchester.
1881 Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111.
1915 Wadsworth, Ralph E., North-
1902 Ware, Horace E., Milton.
1917 Warren, Miss Cornelia, Wal-
1914 Washburn, Paul, Boston.
1914 Waterer, Anthony, 3d, Phila-
1914 Waterer, Hosea, Philadelphia,
1889 Welch, Patrick, Dorchester.
1915 Wetterlow, Eric H., Manches-
1909 Wheeler, George F., Concord.
1897 Wheeler, Henry A., Xewton-
1917 White, Mrs. Joseph H., Brook-
1901 Wilder, Miss Grace S., Dor-
1897 Wilkie, Edward A., Xewton-
1913 Williams, Mrs. Emile F., Cam-
1889 Winter, William C, Mansfield.